3 Learning Outcomes By the end of this lesson you should be able to: describe Social Learning Theoryapply Social Learning Theory to gender
4 Social Learning Theory Key TermsObservational LearningVicarious (Indirect) ReinforcementVicarious (Indirect) PunishmentModelImitationMental Representation (Cognition)Graphic Organiser
5 Social Learning Stages AttentionRetentionReproductionMotivation
6 Social Cognitive Theory Bandura added more factors to the SLT to explain the cognitive factors of role development...
7 Modelling What makes someone likely to copy what you are doing? Appropriateness!Males would imitate other males or someone with similar characteristics to themEg) Boys may learn a good deal about homemaking, but rarely adopt such activities (Bandura and Bussey, 1999)
8 How might children’s experiences change as they grow up? As children grow up, their mobility improves. Their variety of social reactions increase!This is known as:ENACTIVE REPRESENTATION
9 Direct TuitionAppropriate gender instructions begin as children acquire language.“Instructors” can be parents or children. Anyone with an authority oh childrenCan you remember any of your gendered instructions?
10 Can you remember the context/what was said? DiscussionCan you remember anything/anyone that had an influence on your gender identity growing up?Can you remember the context/what was said?If you were rearing a child of your own, do you think you would influence their gender development?
11 The Influence of Parents Parents are a primary socializing agent, especially when children are youngStarting at birth, parents treat girls and boys differently, and believe them to possess different characteristics
12 The Influence of PeersPeers are important because they offer a model of gender-linked behaviours(Bandura, 1999)In their interactions, peers reward each other for gender appropriate activities and vice versa.Boys are more likely to criticise activities considered feminine (Fagot, 1985)
13 The Influence of Schools Teachers are another source of influence.They can reinforce gender appropriate behaviour and act as role models themselves
14 Media InfluencesMessages about gendered behavior and interactions are also conveyed through television, movies, magazines, and booksOn average, each day a 4-year-old watches 2 hours of television and a 12-year-old watches 4 hours (Comstock and Scharrer, 2001)Some European nations ban ads before, during, and after children’s television programming
15 Men are more likely to be seen controlling events, while women are at the mercy of them (Hodges et al, 1981)