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1 Slide shows combined and modified from: AP BIOLOGY Chapter 6 What You Should Know Already from BIO I



4 CELL MEMBRANE (also called plasma membrane) PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER with PROTEINS Hydrophobic tails face in Hydrophilic heads face out Outside of cell Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Cell membrane Proteins Protein channel Lipid bilayer Carbohydrate chains Membrane Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved Phospholipid image from: SEE HOW MEMBRANES FORM

5 FLUID MOSAIC MODEL Molecules in cell membranes are constantly moving and changing Click here to See Fluidity Animation from:

6 CELL MEMBRANES act as boundary selectively permeable ~ gases & hydrophobic molecules can pass through ~ large, ionic, OR polar molecules need help (facilitated diffusion, ion channels, Na+-K+ pump, endocytosis & exocytosis)

7 CYTOPLASM (Between nucleus and cell membrane) Includes ORGANELLES- small structures with a specific function CYTOSOL-semi-fluid goo Image from: Image from:

8 NUCLEUS Surrounded by DOUBLE membrane (Nuclear envelope) Nuclear pores- allow molecules in & out Contains DNA Control center Replication (DNA DNA) Transcription (DNA RNA) Image from:

9 NUCLEOLUS Dark spot in nucleus Produces ribosomal RNA Assembles ribosomes (RNA & proteins) Image from:

10 DNA CHROMATIN- spread out in NON-dividing cells to access info CHROMOSOMES- condensed in dividing cells for easier transport

11 Cytoskeleton Network of protein fibers supporting cell shape and anchoring organelles – Microtubules – Microfilaments

12 RIBOSOMES Composed of two subunits that join and attach to messenger RNA Made of r-RNA & proteins Site of protein synthesis (~translation)


14 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Lipid bilayer continuous with nuclear envelope Smooth ER no ribosomes synthesis of lipids metabolism of carbohydrates stores calcium detoxification of drugs and poisons Rough ER with ribosomes synthesis of secretory proteins (glycoproteins) membrane production Image from:

15 Golgi apparatus ( collection of Golgi bodies) UPS of cell Modify, sort, & package molecules from ER for storage OR transport out of cell Image from: Image from:

16 Animation from: See a Golgi movie


18 Lysosomes - membrane-bound vesicles containing digestive enzymes Breaks down food unwanted cell parts bacteria helps in APOPTOSIS programmed cell death See lysosomes in actionin action:

19 PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH APOPTOSIS Embryo development Cell maintenance Signal to self destruct lost in cancer cells

20 CENTRIOLES Made of microtubules Appear during cell division in animal cells to pull chromosomes apart


22 MITOCHONDRIA DOUBLE MEMBRANE (inner membrane = cristae) Has own DNA Powerplant of cell ~ site of cellular respiration ~ burn glucose ~ store energy as ATP Images from:

23 CHLOROPLASTS DOUBLE MEMBRANE Has own DNA Contains thylakoid sacs with chlorophyll for photosynthesis

24 Move substances past cells Help move cells FLAGELLA & CILIA Made of microtubules arrangement

25 CILIA Many short FLAGELLA Few Long WHATS THE DIFFERENCE? Animation from:

26 WHATS SPECIAL ABOUT PLANT CELLS? Cell wall HUGE vacuoles Chloroplasts No centrioles

27 CELL WALL Outside cell membrane Supports and protects cell Plants- Cellulose makes it sturdy Bacteria- have peptidoglycan instead

28 VACUOLES Huge in plants Storage space for water, food, enzymes, waste Image from:

29 VACUOLES can store WATER

30 Freshwater organisms have contractile vacuoles to control excess water in cells (HOMEOSTASIS)

31 WHATS DIFFERENT ABOUT BACTERIAL CELLS? Cell wall NO NUCLEAR MEMBRANE DNA is circular No membrane bound organelles

32 WHICH IS BIGGER? _________ > _____________ > ___________ Plant cellAnimal cell bacteria

33 DIFFERENCES IN ANIMAL CELLS, PLANT CELLS, AND BACTERIA ANIMAL CELLPLANT CELLBACTERIA Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Cell membrane Nuclear membrane NO nuclear membrane NO cell wallCell wall made of CELLULOSE Cell wall made of PEPTIDOGLYCAN Has ribosomes DNA in multiple chromosomes DNA is a single circular ring CYTOSKELETON Small vacuolesReally big vacuoleNO vacuoles Has lysosomesFew lysosomesNO lysosomes Has centriolesNO centrioles NO chloroplastsChloroplastsNO chloroplasts SMALLER sizeSMALL sizeSMALLEST size

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