2 Cell Theory 1. All living things are made of ____________. 2. Cells are the basic unit of __________ & __________ in an organism.3. All cells come from the reproduction of ____________ cells.
3 CELL MEMBRANE MODELPhospholipids and proteins move laterally, or side to side, for short distances.Proteins make a pattern on the surface known as the fluid mosaic model.
4 NUCLEUS and NUCLEOLUS NUCLEUS is: Surrounded by nuclear MEMBRANE called the NUCLEAR envelope.Serves as the control CENTER OF CELLNuclear pores allow molecules in and out
5 NUCLEUS and NUCLEOLUS CONTAINS CELL’S GENETIC MATERIAL ( DNA) Contains NUCLEOLUS(Dark spot) whichmakes ribosomes(RNA)
6 NUCLEUS and NUCLEOLUSEach cell has fixed number of chromosomes that carry genesGenes control cell characteristics
7 Nuclear Envelope Double membrane surrounding nucleus Also called nuclear membraneContains nuclear pores for materials to enter & leave nucleusConnected to the rough ER
8 CHROMATIN & CHROMOSOMES DNA is scrunched up as CHROMOSOMES in DIVIDING CELLSDNA is spread out as CHROMATIN in NON-DIVIDING CELLS
9 CYTOSKELETON Made of PROTEINS called actin and tubulin. FUNCTIONS: Helps cell maintain its shapeHelps organelles movearound
10 LYSOSOMES Sac containing digestive enzymes FUNCTION: Digests: food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts for cellsPlays a role in APOPTOSIS: “programmed cell death” Cell suicide for the good of the ORGANISM
11 LYSOSOMES Cells take in food by phagocytosis Lysosomes digest the food & get rid of wastes
12 VACUOLE In plants, they store Cell Sap STORAGE SPACE FOR:In plants, they store Cell SapIncludes storage of sugars, proteins, minerals, lipids, wastes, salts, water, and enzymesHuge in PLANT cells, small in ANIMAL cells, NOT in BACTERIAL cells.
14 CENTRIOLESBundle of microtubules made of PROTEINS called tubulin. (9+3 ring)Only seen in ANIMAL cells during cell divisionFunction: largely unknown,but they do assist incell division
15 CILIA & FLAGELLAMade of PROTEINS called microtubules– tubulin also. organized in a “9+2” arrangementthat help with moving cells, in moving fluids, or in small particles across the cell surface
16 CILIA & FLAGELLACILIA: shorter& more numerous; look like short “hairs”FLAGELLA: longer & fewer; look like “tails”; typically only 1-3 per cell.FUNCTION (BOTH): cell movement, if cell is non-motile, moves fluid over cell surface Ex.- Cilia lining your windpipe sweep mucus containing trapped debris out of your lungs.
18 Cilia Moving Away Dust Particles from the Lungs
19 RIBOSOMESCan be FREE in the cytosol or ATTACHED to the surface of Rough ERMADE OF rRNA (ribosomal) & PROTEINFUNCTION: MAKE PROTEINS
20 CELL MEMBRANE or PLASMA MEMBRANE Made mainly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and PROTEINSHYDROPHOBIC “tails” of phospholipids make molecules line up as a LIPID BI-LAYER with POLAR heads facing OUT and NON-POLAR tails facing IN (to inside of bi-layer)
21 CELL MEMBRANE or PLASMA MEMBRANE Outsideof cellInside(cytoplasm)CellmembraneProteinsProteinchannelLipid bilayerCarbohydratechains
22 CELL MEMBRANE or PLASMA MEMBRANE Proteins attached to surface (inside or outside)= PERIPHERAL PROTEINSProteins stuck into membrane = INTEGRAL PROTEINS(can go part way in or all the way through)
23 CELL MEMBRANE or PLASMA MEMBRANE Membranes are selectively permeable/ semi-permeable when they allow certain molecules to pass through; but keep others out.Cytoplasm/ cytosol is the “gel-like material + organelles” between nucleus and cell membrane
24 CELL MEMBRANE or PLASMA MEMBRANE OTHER MOLECULES:GLYCOPROTEINS with attached CARBOHYDRATE tails to recognize selfContain the steroid CHOLESTEROL to make membranes more flexible
25 MITOCHONDRION (plural: MITOCHONDRIA) Surrounded by DOUBLE membrane. Contains its own DNA.Called the “powerhouse” of cellBurns food (sugars, fats, etc) to release energy.
26 MITOCHONDRION (plural: MITOCHONDRIA) Stores energyreleased as ATP.Smooth outermembraneFolded innermembrane = CRISTAE (increases surface area for more chemical reactions) Cellular respiration happens in the inner membrane.
27 MITOCHONDRION (plural: MITOCHONDRIA) More active cells like muscle cells have MORE mitochondriaBoth plants & animal cells have mitochondria
28 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM(ER) Internal network of hollow membrane tubules.Connects to nuclear envelope & cell membrane
29 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM(ER) ROUGH ERRough ER has ribosomes on its surface, while smooth does not.Rough ER: Attached ribosomes make PROTEINS which are modified & exported.FUNCTION ROUGH ER: Makes membrane proteins and proteinsfor export out of cell
30 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM(ER) Proteins are made by ribosomes on ER surfaceThey are then threaded into the interior of the Rough ER to be modified and transported
31 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM(ER) Rough ER has RIBOSOMES on its surface, while SMOOTH does not.Is attached to the ends of rough ER
32 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM(ER) SMOOTH ERFUNCTION SMOOTH ER:Makes cell products that are USED In the cellMakes membrane lipids (steroids)Regulates calcium (muscle cells)Destroys toxic substances (Liver)
33 GOLGI APPARATUS (BODY) Looks like a stack of flattened sacs.FUNCTION: Modify, sort, and package substances from ER for transport out of cell OR for storage.Have a shipping side (cis face) & a receiving side (trans face)Receive proteins made by ERTransport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends
36 VESICLES Sacs made of membrane Used to transport substances within the cell– protein from ER to Golgi to cell membrane, or to take in food (endocytosis) or get rid of wastes (exocytosis)Disposable; pinch off of and fuse with other membranes in the cell.
40 CHLOROPLASTS Surrounded by double membrane Has its own DNA Outer membrane smoothInner membrane sacs called THYLAKOIDS contain CHLOROPHYLL where photosynthesis happens.
41 CHLOROPLASTSStacks of thylakoids called GRANA. Gel like material around thylakoids called STROMA.FOUND ONLY IN PLANT CELLS
42 CELL WALL Found OUTSIDE the cell membrane. Provides structure & support.Cellulose in the cell wall makes plant cells sturdy.Bacteria have cell walls made of peptidoglycan instead of cellulose.Made of chitin in Fungi
43 PROKARYOTESBacteria are the most common prokaryotic cell. They do not have anucleus, but do contain a single circular chromosome made of DNA, found in the NUCLEOID REGION.Like all cells, bacteria are surrounded by a cell membrane which contains the gel-like cytosol of the cell.
44 TONOPLASTMembrane that encloses the CENTRAL VACUOLE in a plant cell, separating it from the cytosol.
45 PEROXISOMESOrganelle containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
46 PLASMODESMATAAn open channel in the cell wall of PLANTS through which strands of CYTOSOL connect from adjacent cells.
47 CENTROSOMEPresent in cytosol of all eukaryotic cells; important during cell division; the MICROTUBULE organizing center.