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2 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Body Changes 4. Brain Development 5. Injuries and Abuse 6. Closing Thoughts.

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Presentation on theme: "2 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Body Changes 4. Brain Development 5. Injuries and Abuse 6. Closing Thoughts."— Presentation transcript:


2 2 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Body Changes 4. Brain Development 5. Injuries and Abuse 6. Closing Thoughts

3 3 Introduction [Video: Physical Development Introduction]

4 Fact or Fiction?FictionFact 1. By age 6, the childs body is proportionately not very different from that of the adult. 2. Although the right and left hemispheres of the brain have specialized functions, cognitive skill requires both sides of the brain. 3. Accidents are the leading cause of childhood death. 4. Child maltreatment involves not only physical abuse, but failure to meet the childs basic needs. Physical Development 4

5 How does the body change by age 6? A healthy 6-year-old in a developed nation: Weight: pounds (18-22 kilograms) Height: 3/12 feet (100 + centimeters) Adult proportions: legs equal half of total height Growth Patterns 5 3-year-old 6-year-old

6 Young Childrens Insistence on Routine Eating Habits just right principle: Although a sign of pathological obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults, a normal and widespread phenomenon among young children (Evans & Leckman, 2006). Is it normal for a young child to only want to eat the same thing all of the time? Score on just right survey items Age (in years) Source: Evans et al.,

7 Eating Habits 7 [Video: Nutritional needs of Infants and Children: Food Insecurity]

8 Eating Habits 8 [Video: Children in China with Iodine Deficiency]

9 Prefrontal cortex (outer layers) What are some brain parts that develop during early childhood? Performs brains executive functions – planning, selecting, and coordinationg thoughts Relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex Cerebral cortex Limbic system Axon fibers connecting two cerebral hemispheres Left hemisphere Right hemisphere Front of brain Master endocrine gland Conscious processing of sights Visual cortex (on occipital lobe) Pathway for neural fibers traveling to and from brain; controls simple reflexes Coordinates voluntary movement and balance Auditory cortex (on temporal lobe) Conscious processing of sounds Hippocampus Neural centers in the limbic system linked to emotion A structure in the limbic system linked to memory Amygdala Controls maintenance functions such as eating; helps govern endocrine system; linked to emotion and reward Hypothalamus Right hemisphere (cross-section) Cerebral cortex (outer layers) Ultimate control and information- processing center Corpus callosum Thalamus Pituitary Spinal cord Cerebellum 9

10 myelination: The process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron. Speed of Thought 10

11 Speed of Thought 11 [Video: Brain Development Animation: The Process of Myelination]

12 Connecting the Brains Hemispheres What do the left and right hemispheres control? Left-side damage Right-side damage lateralization: Literally, sidedness, referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa. corpus callosum: A long, thick band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain and allows communication between them. 12

13 Planning and Analyzing Can children sort things one way and then sort them another way? Sort by animal Sort by color 13

14 Emotions and the Brain What brain parts make up the limbic system? amygdala hippocampus hypothalamus pituitary gland Adrenal cortex Positive feedback loop Negative feedback loop Brain amygdala hypothalamus hippocampus The HPA (Hypothalamus-Pituary-Adrenal Cortex) Axis Adrenal cortex CORT ACTH CRH amygdala: A tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. hippocampus: A brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially memory for locations. hypothalamus: A brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body. pituitary gland: A gland in the brain that produces hormones when signaled by the hypothalamus. 14

15 What gross motor skills do young children develop? Motor Skills 15

16 Fine Motor Skills What fine motor skills do young children develop? 16

17 Gross and Fine Motor Skills 17 [Video: Gross and Fine Motor Skills]

18 injury control/harm reduction: Practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities; these practices reflect the belief that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place. Primary PreventionSecondary PreventionTertiary Prevention Avoidable Injury What are three levels of prevention for injury control? 18

19 Child Maltreatment Substantiated Child Maltreatment in the United States, 2000 and 2007 Number of victims 1,000, , , , Total Neglect Physical abuse Sexual abuse Other* * Other includes emotional and medical abuse, educational neglect and maltreatment not specified by the state records. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, child maltreatment: Intentional harm to, or avoidable endangerment of, anyone under 18 years of age. 19

20 Child Maltreatment 20 [Video: Stolen Childhoods: Helping Child Labors in Nepal]

21 Closing Thoughts Imagine that a friend of yours has a toddler and also knows that you are taking a course in developmental psychology. If this friend asked what he should know about how his child will develop in the next several years, what hallmarks of physical development would you pointout to him? What gets in the way of healthy development? 21


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