Presentation on theme: "A Guided Tour of the Brain"— Presentation transcript:
1A Guided Tour of the Brain Minnie GreerCassidy BoyceDeanna HammettDiana PadillaJessica Chappell
2Table of Contents Studying of the Brain The Developing Brain NeurogenesisThe BrainstemThe HindbrainThe MidbrainThe ForebrainCerebral CortexLobes of the BrainThe Limbic SystemStructures
3Studying of the BrainOne early approach to mapping brain functions involved examining the bumps on a person’s skull.Case studies of individuals with brain damage have provided valuable insights into behavior in such area as memory, speech, emotion, movement, and personality.Lesions- surgically altering, removing, or destroying specific portions of the brainIn humans, lesions are produced for medical reasons, such as when part of the brain is surgically altered or removed to relieve uncontrollable seizuresElectroencephalograph- allowed scientists to record the brain’s electrical activity through the use of large, disk-shaped electrodes placed harmlessly on a person’s scalp
4The Developing BrainBy three weeks after conception, a sheet of primal neural cells has formed. This sheet curls to form the hollow neural tube.The neural stem cells divide and multiply, creating specific cells that eventually produce neurons and glial cells.As the neural tube expands, the cavities develop, called the ventricles.During peak periods in the brain development, new neurons are being generated rapidly.Triggered by chemical signals, the new neurons travel to specific locations.
5The Developing Brain -Neurogenesis For many years, it was thought that the mature brain could lose neurons, but not grow new ones.But new studies showed that the hippocampus, a brain structure that plays a vital role in forming new memories, has the ability to generate new neurons throughout the lifespan.Studies since this discovery have shown that stress, exercise, environmental complexity, and social status have been shown to affect the rate of neurogenesis in rats, birds, and monkeys.But it is unknown if these findings can be applied to the human brain.
6The Brainstem Includes the hindbrain and midbrain Hindbrain: Midbrain: Located at the base of the brainHindbrain:A region at the base of the brain that contains several structures that regulate basic life functionsMidbrain:The middle and smallest brain region, involved in processing auditory and visual sensory information
7The Brainstem -The Hindbrain Connected to the spinal cord with the rest of the brainMade up of three structuresMedulla: Lies directly above the spinal cord; contains centers active in control of breathing, heart rate, and digestion; also controls swallowing, coughing, vomiting, and sneezingPons: swelling of tissue; relay information from various other brain regions to the cerebellumCerebellum: controls balance, muscle tone, and coordinated muscle movements; affected by alcohol consumption
8The Brainstem -The Midbrain Relay station that contains centers important to the processing of auditory and visual sensory informationProcess auditory sensations from the left and right earsHelps you visually locate objects and track their movementsSubstantia nigra: in midbrain; contains a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons
9The Forebrain -Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex: outer portion of forebrainOnly a quarter an inch thickMainly composed of glial cells and neuron cell bodies and axonsGray matter (in reference to color)White matter consists of myelinated axons that connect cerebral cortex to other brain regionsDivided into two cerebral hemispheres connected by corpus callosumCerebral hemispheres are then divided into four lobesTemporal, occipital, parietal and frontal lobes
10The Forebrain -The Cerebral Cortex (lobes of the brain) Temporal LobeContains primary auditory cortexOccipital LobeContains primary visual cortexParietal LobeInvolved in somatosensory information (somatosensory cortex)Frontal lobeLargest lobePrimary motor cortexInvolved in planning, initiating, and executing voluntary movementsAssociation AreasLocated on all lobesCombine sensory and motor informationCoordinate interaction among different brain areas
11The Forebrain -The Limbic System Limbic System: structures that form a border around brainstem and are involved in emotion, motivation, learning, and memory.Plays a critical role in learning, memory, and emotional control
12The Forebrain -The Limbic System (structures) HypothalamusRegulates behaviors related to survivalEating, drinking, and sexual activityOften referred to as “the brain within the brain”Controls secretion of endocrine hormonesInfluences anterior and posterior pituitary glandsAmygdalaClump of neuron cell bodies at the base of temporal lobeInvolved in emotion and memory