Presentation on theme: "Take out all of your writing utensils Average/Mean for females?_____ Average/Mean for males? _____."— Presentation transcript:
Take out all of your writing utensils Average/Mean for females?_____ Average/Mean for males? _____
The Need for Psychological Science
The biases and errors of peoples everyday judgments illustrate the need for a scientific attitude: A.Skepticism Where is the evidence? How do you REALLY know this? B.Humility Scientists are willing to reject their own ideas/biases, if needed.
The Need for Psychological Science C.Critical Thinking Scientists never blindly accept arguments and conclusions Four elements 1. examine assumptions 2. discerns hidden values 3. evaluates evidence 4. assess conclusions
Trepanation Chipping away a hole in the skull to let out evil spirits is a cure for adolescent rebellion and the thinking that leads adolescents to behave badly. 1. Examine Assumptions 2. Discern Hidden Values 3. Evaluate Evidence 4. Assess Conclusions
The Need for Psychological Science Hindsight Bias we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon Intuition Describe your intuitive moment In research, common sense (intuition) predicts what DID happen more often than what WILL happen. Intuition is based on common sense and experience!
The Need for Psychological Science Overconfidence we tend to think we know more than we do this leads us to CONFIRM our own thoughts and ignore evidence that might disprove us (bias) – confirmation bias Have you ever ignored evidence that was contrary/different from what you believed?
The Scientific Method Theory Hypothesis Operational Definition How can you measure or operate with these variables? arbook/sfhs67_yearbook_pg46f.jpg Test the hypothesis: Girls smile more than boys.
Operational Defintions I want to study the effects of physical contact on attachment. I want to study the effects of sugar on attention levels.
Six steps of the Scientific Method. a.Identify the theory b.Form an hypothesis c.Determine the variables d.Design the experiment e.Gather the data f. Analyze, conclude, and report your findings Journals, Colleagues Magazines g.Replicate = Valid
Case Study Survey Naturalistic Observation Correlation Experimentation
Free Response 2006 Exam Psychologists use a variety of research methods to study behavior. Three of the main research methods used are: *Case Study *Correlational Study, and *Experiment. A.Discuss the advantage of each research method listed above. B.Discuss one disadvantage of each research method listed above. Pretend you are a psychologist who will use each of the three research methods – case study, correlational study, and experimentto determine the effect of taking Vitamin J on improving memory. C.For each method listed above, explain a key characteristic of the basic approach you could use to reach a scientific conclusion about the relationship between taking vitamin J and improving memory. You need not design a complete study.
Case Study Goals Met - Description (of the ONE person or ONE small group) Definition:Intensive analysis and description of an individual or a small group. Advantages:A lot of information. A rich description. Leads to ideas for future study.
Case Study Continued … Disadvantages Examples Reflection Question #2… Observer Bias Difficult to generalize beyond single case studied tch?v=_6Fv_P-lKYU tch?v=_6Fv_P-lKYU
Goals Met:Describe and Predict (if correlation determined from data) Definition:Asking predetermined questions using an interview or a questionnaire.
Survey Continued … Advantages Disadvantages Lots of information Relatively low cost Done in a short amount of time Respondents might not be representative (sampling bias) Respondents might not be knowledgeable or might want to please researcher (response bias)
Survey Problems …. Response Bias – What people SAY is often very different from what the DO. (Would you admit to everything you do/think/feel?) False Consensus – The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and opinions.
Types of Wording Effects Wording Effects – The way a question is worded affects the outcome of the survey. a. Emotionally Charged Questions b. Limited/Biased Range of Options c. Biased Order of the Questions d. Subject Ignorance Samples Provided in Class
Survey/Experiment Definitions Population:Larger group you wish to generalize your findings to … the group your research will benefit. Sample of Subjects:People you choose from the population to survey (study) Representative Sample: (noun) Set of subjects that represent the population (all parts … ethnicity/sex/religion/etc.) Random Sampling: (verb/procedure) Each person in your population has an equal chance of being selected for your study. Ensures a representative sample. Examples and Reflection Question #3
Goals Met:Describe Definition:Behavior is studied in its natural environment without interference from the researcher.
Naturalistic Observation Cont. Advantages: Spontaneous Not a lab setting Great ideas for future hypotheses m/watch?v=zvpG6lkGM Vs m/watch?v=zvpG6lkGM Vs Disadvantages Observer Bias Confirmation Bias One Chance – think spontaneous moment! Reflection Question #1
Goals Met:Describe and Predict Definition:Used to clarify the strength of a relationship among variables.
Correlation Continued … Examples: What kind of correlation? Scatter Plots and Correlation Coefficient Dark clouds and rain Study time and test scores Smoking and lifespan Consumption of hot cocoa and temperature Direction Positive – Vary together Negative – Vary opposite None – No relationship Strength
Correlation Perfect positive correlation (+1.00) No relationship (0.00)Perfect negative correlation (-1.00) Scatterplots, showing patterns of correlations
Correlation Continued Advantages Disadvantages Description and prediction are possible. Absolutely NO causality. Cannot explain why a relationship exists, only that there is one. Illusory Correlation (see correlation where none exists) Patterns (Idaho drivers) Random Events (shootings) Third Variables (pallegra) No Cause/Effect
Multi-Method Approach (Eclectic) You follow a case study closely You notice (as part of some naturalistic observations) a correlation You survey a similar set of subjects from the population You find a definite mathematical correlation You experiment to prove cause and effect
Usually the last step in the research process. May include other methods along the way. Goals Met:Explain!! Definition:The investigator manipulates one or more factors called the independent variable to observe its effect on some behavior or mental process called the dependent variable while controlling other, relevant factors called confounding variables.
Definitions Experimentation Independent Variable (IV): The controlled or manipulated variable. The thing that is given or not given to the subjects. The variable whose effect is being studied. Dependent Variable (DV): The effect (behavior or mental process) being observed that is caused by the IV. The variable that may change in response to the IV. Hypothesis and Operational Definition (see previous) Experimental Group (EG): Manipulated group Receives the treatment Receives the IV Control Group (CG): Comparison Group Does not receive the IV May receive a placebo (looks like IV, but is not have the same effect)
Experimentation Continued … Random Sampling (verb) Get sample that represents (noun) the population Biased Sample Does not represent the population Eliminate Researcher Bias/Subject Bias Blind – one doesnt know Double-Blind – both dont know Random Assignment Randomly assign subjects to CG and EG – to make both groups representative.
Experimentation Continued Example – Reflection Sheet Population IV DV CG EG
Experimentation Continued … Advantages Disadvantages Conclusions can be drawn about causation Explanations are given for behaviors and mental processes Cause and effect Ethical considerations – any time you experiment with humans/animals Behavior constricted to a laboratory (not always natural/realistic)
Ethical Guidelines - APA 1. Informed consent 2. Subject can withdraw at any time 3. Information provided for how to contact researcher after 4. Confidentiality 5. Explain any misconceptions at the earliest possible time (without creating bias) 6. If deception occurs, must remove misconceptions at the end 7. Those working with animals/humans must be trained 8. Great lengths must be taken to minimize all animal/human discomfort