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Research Methods in Psychology Pertemuan 3 s.d 4 Matakuliah: L0014/Psikologi Umum Tahun: 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Research Methods in Psychology Pertemuan 3 s.d 4 Matakuliah: L0014/Psikologi Umum Tahun: 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Methods in Psychology Pertemuan 3 s.d 4 Matakuliah: L0014/Psikologi Umum Tahun: 2007

2 BINA NUSANTARA2 Agenda Today 1. Basic Concepts of Research 2. Research Methods 3. Ethical Principles of Research

3 BINA NUSANTARA3 What is Research ?


5 BINA NUSANTARA5 SCIENTIFIC METHOD Method of studying nature based on systematic observation and rules of evidence Need think critically about the evidence The psychological scientist asks : – What is the evidence? – How good is the evidence? – What are the alternative explanation for the evidence ? – What needs to learn next ?

6 BINA NUSANTARA6 Empirical Evidence : evidence based on observation of publicly observable phenomena Operational Definitions : describe the observation in terms of the operational measurement (procedures, operations) – The use of Operational measurement : to evaluate the quality of the evidence and the alternative interpretations of the evidence Theories – Tentative explanations of facts and relationships in sciences – Always subject to change  revise because scientist are constantly testing them Hypotheses – A theory tested by making a prediction based on theory Representative of Samples – A relatively small groups of participants studied to learn about an entire population Important of Replication in Research – Repeating studies based on the scientific principle that the results of studies should be doubted until the same results have been found in similar studies by other researchers

7 BINA NUSANTARA7 RESEARCH METHODS 1. Descriptive Studies 2. Formal Experiments 3. Describing and Interpreting Data

8 BINA NUSANTARA8 DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES (1) Survey Method – A research method that uses interviews and questionnaires with individuals – The primary advantage : gather great deal of information on a relatively short time – The main disadvantage : The sample of people who are surveyed can influence the results Can not be sure that the answers are completely honest (esp. for sensitive topic) A number of subtle factors have been found to influence the results of surveys Naturalistic Observation – A research method based on observation and recording behavior as it occurs in natural life settings Clinical Method – A method of studying people while they are receiving psychological help from mental health proffesional

9 BINA NUSANTARA9 DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES (2) Correlational studies – Correlational Method : a research method that measure the strength of the relation between variables – Variable : a factor that can be assigned a numerical value – Quantitative measures : capable of being measured in numerical terms – Correlation Coefficient : to measure the strength & direction of the correlation between two quantitative variables in statistical terms (positive vs negative correlation, correlation coefficient = 0) – Correlation does not necessarily mean causation

10 BINA NUSANTARA10 FORMAL EXPERIMENTS (1) A research method that allows the researcher to manipulate the independent variable to study its effect on the dependent variable – Independent Variable : the variable whose quantitative value is independently controlled by the researcher (ex. The conditions) – Dependent Variable : the measure of specific behavior of interest that expected to depend on the effects of the independent variable – Experimental group : the group in an experiment that receives some value of the independent variable – Control Group : the group that is not exposed to any level of the independent variable and is used for comparisons with the treatment group If the behavior of the participants in the experimental group differs from the behavior of the participants in the control group, the hypothesis that differences in the IV cause differences in the DV is supported, but only under 2 circumstances: 1. when the participants are randomly assigned 2. If all the alternatives explanations for findings have been ruled through strict experimental control

11 BINA NUSANTARA11 FORMAL EXPERIMENTS (2) Placebo control – Placebo effects : changes in behavior produced by a condition in a formal experiment thought to be inert or inactive Blind formal experiments – The researchers recording the data (DV) does not know which participants had received which condition of the IV – Why ? To avoid un-intentionally recording the data in a way that would favor their hypothesis To rule out the possibility of experimenter bias – Double blind experiments : the researchers and the participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group

12 BINA NUSANTARA12 DESCRIBING AND INTEPRETING DATA Descriptive statistic – Statistic (mean, median, mode, SD) that summarize the numerical results of studies Reaching Conclusions from data – Statistical significant : the question is whether the correlation and the difference between means are greater that would be expected by chance – 2 important issues : 1. When the size of the sample of persons in the study is larger 2. Statistical significance ‡ practical significance


14 BINA NUSANTARA14 WITH HUMAN PARTICIPANTS 1. Freedom from coercion No pressure or gift promise 2. Informed consent Has to tell about the procedures, risks and benefits 3. Limited deception The purpose of the study (if not before, after) 4. Adequate debriefing Right to know the results of the study 5. Confidentiality

15 BINA NUSANTARA15 WITH NON HUMAN PARTICIPANTS 1. Necessity 2. Health 3. Humane treatment

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