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Research Methods AP Psych – Chapter 2 Psychology’s Scientific Method

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1 Research Methods AP Psych – Chapter 2 Psychology’s Scientific Method
Alice F. Short Hilliard Davidson High School

2 Psychology Majors 2 Most Commonly Required Classes:
Research Statistics A SHORT Time to Ponder Why would these be the two most required classes for psychology majors across the country?

3 Chapter Preview Psychology’s Scientific Method
Types of Psychological Research Research Samples and Settings Analyzing and Interpreting Data Conducting Ethical Research Thinking Critically About Research Scientific Method and Health and Wellness

4 A SHORT Time to Ponder As a society, do we value critical thinking?
Is critical thinking uncomfortable sometimes?

5 Scientific Method Science is a method. (It’s a VERB)
It’s not what you study, but how you study it. any objective person can use the scientific method observe some phenomenon formulate hypothesis and predictions test through empirical research draw conclusions evaluate the theory

6 Scientific Method – 1. Observe
Step 1: Observe some phenomenon curiosity variables theory

7 Scientific Method – 2. Hypothesize
Step 2: Formulate hypotheses and predictions testable prediction derived from theory

8 Scientific Method – 3. Research
Step 3: Test through empirical research operational definition of variables analyze data using statistical procedures

9 Scientific Method – 4. Conclusions
Step 4: Draw conclusions replication of results → reliability If other people cannot replicate your study, then your result are unreliable. What could this potentially mean for your study? (Think critically!)

10 Scientific Method – 5. Evaluate
Step 5: Evaluate the theory change the theory? peer review and publication publish or perish meta-analysis – method by which researchers combine results across studies to establish the strength of an effect theory = broad umbrella category which can either be supported or refuted by testable hypotheses

11 Descriptive Research Goal: Describing a phenomenon
observation surveys and interviews case studies Descriptive research does not answer questions about how and why things are the way they are

12 Correlational Research
Goal: Identify relationships (does not mean there is a causal relationships) correlation coefficient: r -1.00 ≤ r ≤ 1.00 strength of relationship: magnitude direction of relationship: + / -

13 Correlational Coefficients

14 Scatter Plots

15 Correlational Research
Positive Correlations factors vary in same direction ↑ and ↑ … or … ↓ and ↓ Negative Correlations factors vary in opposite direction ↑ and ↓ … or … ↑ and ↓

16 Correlation and Causation
correlation does not equal causation third variable problem Why would some people not WANT to consider a third variable problem? longitudinal design

17 Experimental Research
Goal: Determine causation random assignment – extremely important in experimental design independent variable(s) – manipulation dependent variable(s) – measurement All of these vocabulary terms are very important to KNOW!

18 Experimental Research
Experimental Group independent variable is manipulated Control Group treated equally, except no manipulation of independent variable

19 Validity External Validity Internal Validity
representative of real world issues? do results generalize to the real world? Internal Validity are dependent variable changes the result of independent variable manipulation? bias? logical errors?

20 Bias and Expectations experimenter bias demand characteristics
research participant bias placebo effect double-blind experiment

21 Example of Experimental Research: Self Esteem
Baumeister’s research findings: “high self esteem leads to aggression” Donnellan & Trzesniewski’s research findings: “low self esteem leads to aggression” What accounts for these different findings? lab-only aggression? type of self esteem?

22 Applying Different Research Methods to the Same Phenomenon
Example: Election of President Barack Obama Possible Research Methods: observation survey and interview case studies correlational research experimental research

23 Research Sample Population Sample Representative Sample Random Sample
entire group about whom conclusion drawn Sample portion of population actually observed Representative Sample characteristics similar to population opposite of “biased sample” Random Sample equal chance of being selected

24 Research Settings “Artificial” world – laboratory setting
controlled setting Real world - natural setting naturalistic observation DISCUSSION: What are the advantages and disadvantages of each setting?

25 Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Statistics mathematical methods used to report data Descriptive Statistics describe and summarize data Measures of Central Tendency mean median mode Measures of Dispersion range standard deviation Inferential Statistics draw conclusions about data does data confirm the hypothesis? statistical significance α = 0.05 (confidence level) bridge between sample and population

26 A SHORT Time to Ponder What is the difference between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics?

27 Research Ethics research participants have rights
Institutional Review Board (IRB) APA Guidelines informed consent confidentiality debriefing deception

28 Animal Research in Psychology
animal research has benefited humans used by 5% of researchers rats and mice used 90% of time standards of care in animal research housing feeding psychological and physical well being

29 Reality TV – Ethical Issues?
informed consent? Deception? psychological and/or physical risk? is the behavior real? DISCUSSION: What do YOU think?

30 A Wise Consumer… is skeptical yet open-minded!
Cautions exercise caution in applying group trends to individual experience avoid overgeneralizing results look for converging evidence question causal inferences consider the source

31 Expressive Writing and Health
Results of study on suicide v. accidental death different survivor health different survivor rate of talking about the loss Results lead to study on writing those assigned to write about a trauma experienced better physical health

32 Chapter Summary Explain what makes psychology a science.
Discuss common research settings and the main types of research that are used in psychology. Distinguish between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Discuss some challenges that involve ethics, bias, and information. Discuss scientific studies on the effect of writing about ones trauma.

33 Chapter Summary Steps of the Scientific Method
observe hypothesize research conclude evaluate Research Methods and Settings descriptive, correlational, and experimental studies conducted in natural settings or the lab

34 Chapter Summary Data Analysis and Interpretation
descriptive and inferential statistics Challenges: Research Ethics and Bias APA guidelines and the IRB Expressive Writing and Health and Wellness benefits of writing about trauma

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