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Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc 100 2004 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc 100 2004 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc The Need for Psychological Science Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses

3 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc The Need for Psychological Science  Hindsight Bias  we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it  the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon  Overconfidence  we tend to think we know more than we do

4 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc The Need for Psychological Science  Critical Thinking  thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions  examines assumptions  discerns hidden values  evaluates evidence The Amazing Randi--Skeptic

5 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc The Need for Psychological Science  Theory  an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations  Hypothesis  a testable prediction  often implied by a theory

6 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc The Need for Psychological Science

7 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc The Need for Psychological Science  Operational Definition  a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables  Example-  intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures

8 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc The Need for Psychological Science  Replication  repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances  usually with different participants in different situations

9 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Description Psychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation

10 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Description Case Study  Psychologists study one or more individuals in great depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all Is language uniquely human?

11 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Description  Survey  technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people  usually by questioning a representative, random sample of people  Random Sample  a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

12 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Description  False Consensus Effect  tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors  Population  all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

13 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Description

14 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Description  If marbles of two colors are mixed well in the large jar, the fastest way to know their ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller one and count them

15 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Description  Naturalistic Observation  observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

16 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Correlation  Correlation Coefficient  a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other Correlation coefficient Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) r = +.37

17 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Correlation  Scatterplot  a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables  the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship  the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation  little scatter indicates high correlation  also called a scattergram or scatter diagram

18 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Correlation Perfect positive correlation (+1.00) No relationship (0.00)Perfect negative correlation (-1.00) Scatterplots, showing patterns of correlations

19 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Correlation Height and Temperament of 20 Men Subject Height in Inches Temperament Subject Height in Inches Temperament

20 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Correlation Scatterplot of Height and Temperament Temperament scores Height in inches

21 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Correlation Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationships (1) Low self-esteem Depression (2) Depression Low self-esteem Depression (3) Distressing events or biological predisposition could cause or and

22 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Illusory Correlation  Illusory Correlation  the perception of a relationship where none exists ConceiveDo not conceive Adopt Do not adopt disconfirming evidence confirming evidence disconfirming evidence confirming evidence

23 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Two Random Sequences  Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960.

24 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Experimentation  Experiment  an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable)  by random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors

25 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Experimentation  Placebo  an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent  Double-blind Procedure  both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo  commonly used in drug-evaluation studies

26 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Experimentation  Experimental Condition  the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable  Control Condition  the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment  serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

27 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Experimentation  Random Assignment  assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance  minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups

28 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Experimentation  Independent Variable  the experimental factor that is manipulated  the variable whose effect is being studied  Dependent Variable  the experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable  in psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process

29 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Experimentation

30 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Research Strategies  Design of the subliminal tapes experiment Subliminal tape content Self-esteemMemory Self-esteem Tape label

31 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Statistical Reasoning Our Brand Brand Brand Brand X Y Z 100% Percentage still functioning after 10 years Brand of truck

32 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Statistical Reasoning Our Brand Brand Brand Brand X Y Z 100% Percentage still functioning after 10 years Brand of truck

33 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Statistical Reasoning  Mode  the most frequently occurring score in a distribution  Mean  the arithmetic average of a distribution  obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores  Median  the middle score in a distribution  half the scores are above it and half are below it

34 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Statistical Reasoning A Skewed Distribution Mode Median Mean One Family Income per family in thousands of dollars

35 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Statistical Reasoning  Range  the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution  Standard Deviation  a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean  Statistical Significance  a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

36 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?

37 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Does behavior depend on ones culture?  Culture--the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

38 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Does behavior vary with gender?

39 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Why do psychologists study animals? Is it ethical to experiment on animals? Is it ethical to experiment on people?

40 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Is psychology free of value judgments?

41 Ch 1 Thinking Critically Psyc Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Is psychology potentially dangerous?


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