Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:
1Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 1Thinking Critically with Psychological ScienceJames A. McCubbin, PhDClemson UniversityWorth Publishers
2The Need for Psychological Science Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses
3The Need for Psychological Science Hindsight Biaswe tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen itthe “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenonOverconfidencewe tend to think we know more than we do
4The Need for Psychological Science Critical Thinkingthinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusionsexamines assumptionsdiscerns hidden valuesevaluates evidenceThe Amazing Randi--Skeptic
5The Need for Psychological Science Theoryan explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observationsHypothesisa testable predictionoften implied by a theory
7The Need for Psychological Science Operational Definitiona statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variablesExample-intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
8The Need for Psychological Science Replicationrepeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstancesusually with different participants in different situations
9DescriptionPsychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation
10Description Case Study Psychologists study one or more individuals in great depth in the hope of revealing things true of us allIs language uniquely human?
11Description Survey Random Sample technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of peopleusually by questioning a representative, random sample of peopleRandom Samplea sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
12Description False Consensus Effect Population tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviorsPopulationall the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
14Description Naturalistic Observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
15(positive or negative) CorrelationCorrelation Coefficienta statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the otherIndicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Correlationcoefficientr = +.37Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)
16Correlation Scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variablesthe slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationshipthe amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlationlittle scatter indicates high correlationalso called a scattergram or scatter diagram
17Scatterplots, showing patterns of correlations Perfect positivecorrelation (+1.00)No relationship (0.00)Perfect negativecorrelation (-1.00)Scatterplots, showing patterns of correlations
18Experimentation Experiment an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable)by random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors
19Experimentation Placebo Double-blind Procedure an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agentDouble-blind Procedureboth the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebocommonly used in drug-evaluation studies
20Experimentation Experimental Condition Control Condition the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variableControl Conditionthe condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatmentserves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
21Experimentation Random Assignment assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chanceminimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups
22Experimentation Independent Variable Dependent Variable the experimental factor that is manipulatedthe variable whose effect is being studiedDependent Variablethe experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variablein psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process
24Statistical Reasoning Modethe most frequently occurring score in a distributionMeanthe arithmetic average of a distributionobtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scoresMedianthe middle score in a distributionhalf the scores are above it and half are below it
25Statistical Reasoning A Skewed Distribution9047571070Mode Median MeanOne FamilyIncome per family in thousands of dollars
26Statistical Reasoning Rangethe difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distributionStandard Deviationa computed measure of how much scores vary around the meanStatistical Significancea statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
27Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?
28Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Does behavior depend on ones culture?Culture--the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
29Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Does behavior vary with gender?
30Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Why do psychologists study animals?Is it ethical to experiment on animals?Is it ethical to experiment on people?
31Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Is psychology free of value judgments?
32Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Is psychology potentially dangerous?