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Hubbard’s 100 Key Events In History

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1 Hubbard’s 100 Key Events In History
Climb the mountain of success

2 Columbian Exchange Contact from Christopher Columbus in 1492 and other explorers Exchange between West and East Introduced new foods, vegetation and livestock Also devastated cultures with disease, slavery and conquests

3 Protestant Reformation
Protested Catholic control Catholic Church lost political control of many European kingdoms Led by Martin Luther and John Calvin who found Catholic teachings contrary to the Bible

4 English Reformation Attempts by Henry VIII and Elizabeth to rid England of Catholic control Created the Church of England with the monarch as the head of the church

5 Counter Reformation Attempt to reform Catholic Church and regain control of Europe Jesuit missionaries tried to expand influence of church Council of Trent met to strengthen the church and encourage Protestants to return to the church

6 Jamestown First permanent English colony in America
John Rolfe made tobacco the cash crop that made the colony profitable Powhatan Indians helped the colony survive and later fought with the colonists

7 House of Burgesses 1619 Virginia Colony
First Representative Legislature in the American colonies British had a policy of salutary neglect- let the colonies govern themselves

8 Mercantilism Markets and materials mean money for the mother country
Colonies were for making profits Triangular trade across the Atlantic Ocean of raw materials, slaves and manufactured goods England passed Navigation Acts so colonies could trade only with England

9 Founding of New Amsterdam
New York was originally founded by the Dutch Set up as a fur trading post Key port city for trade England took the colony

10 Bacon’s Rebellion Indentured servants became small landowners in the western part of Virginia Conflicts arose with the Indians Nathaniel Bacon led a group of armed settlers against the government led by the wealthy ruling class Virginia turned to slavery for labor

11 Founding of Pennsylvania
William Penn founded the colony as a haven for the Quakers Attracted other religious groups because they practiced tolerance Diverse colony of many religions, middle class workers and languages

12 English Revolution Conflict between king and Parliament
King Charles I was executed and Oliver Cromwell took over After his death, England re-established the monarch – William and Mary Return of monarch called Glorious Revolution because of peaceful change

13 Salem Witch Trials Division over church power and economic status
25 people were put to death as “witches” Attempt to protect the Puritan control of Massachusetts

14 Middle Passage Route of slaves from Africa to the West Indies
Slaves learned skills needed to work as slaves in the colonies Middle part of Triangular Trade Many died before ever reaching America

15 French and Indian War War between England and France over Ohio Territory France lost control of colonies and the war American colonists lost respect for England and their control of the colonies

16 Social Contract Theory
Written by Rousseau Idea that the will of the people was a contract with the government All must abide by this contract/agreement

17 Proclamation of 1763 Attempt by England to keep setters out of the Ohio Valley Colonists could not settle past the Appalachian Mountains Colonists ignored the law

18 Treaty of Paris of 1763 Ended the French and Indian War between England and France France gave up claims to western lands between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River

19 Stamp Act Placed a tax on all printed documents
Documents had to have a stamp placed on them to show the tax was paid Attempt by England to raise money to pay for costs of soldiers in the colonies Colonists boycotted and refused to obey Protest groups – Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty formed

20 Intolerable Acts Also called the Coercive Acts
Laws to punish Boston for the Boston Tea Party Closed Boston harbor and created a military governor for Massachusetts

21 Common Sense Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine
Argued that it only made common sense to for the colonies to fight for independence

22 Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson and others Listed the grievances against the King Said the colonies were free and independent from England Used ideas from John Locke – natural rights of life, liberty and property

23 American Revolution American colonies fought for freedom from England
George Washington led the Americans Continental Army England lost the war and the colonies

24 Crossing the Delaware George Washington surprised the enemy by crossing the Delaware River attacking the British hired soldiers- the Hessians on Christmas night Washington’s victories in New Jersey lifted American morale in the war

25 Valley Forge Washington endured a harsh winter at Valley Forge
Troops trained and learned effective fighting styles Kept up morale of the troops

26 Yorktown Final battle of the American Revolution
England surrendered under Lord Cornwallis French navy blockaded the English escape and helped win the battle

27 Treaty of Paris 1783 Ended the American Revolution
US gained all territory from Atlantic to Mississippi River

28 Articles of Confederation
First government of the United States Weak government that could not levy taxes Was a league of states not a union

29 Shays Rebellion Massachusetts tried to collect taxes
Daniel Shays led a rebellion to help save farmers from the taxes Congress and the Articles of Confederation could not help due to weak government Led to US Constitution and strong government

30 U.S. Constitution 1787, new stronger government for the United States
Allowed for 3 separate branches, checks and balances Ideas of James Madison’s Virginia Plan were used to make compromises for the new government

31 Great Compromise Connecticut Plan Set up two house legislature
Created a Senate for small states and House of Representatives for large states

32 The Federalist Series of articles supporting the Constitution
Favored a strong central government Led by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton

33 French Revolution Economic hardships led to a revolution between the upper classes and the lower classes King and Queen were beheaded Reign of Terror resulted from the revolution Napoleon seized power and ruled France

34 Haiti Revolution Black slaves led by Toussaint L’Ouverture
Fought the French and won Created independent nation of Haiti

35 Whiskey Rebellion Unpopular tax resulted in rebellion
Washington sent troops against the Pennsylvania farmers Showed the power of the new government under the Constitution

36 Proclamation of Neutrality
Washington’ Farewell Address warned of entangling alliances with European powers Created isolation policy in US to stay out of Europe’s affairs

37 Louisiana Purchase 1803, Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory from the French Doubled the size of the country US began to use its own resources rather than foreign nations Lewis and Clark explored the region creating a westward movement

38 War of 1812 War with the British over the Ohio Valley and the threat of Indians British invaded and burned Washington,D.C. American spirit of nationalism grew as American symbols were created: Star Spangled Banner, The White House, the flag

39 Missouri Compromise Divided Louisiana Territory
States north of would be free, those south would have slavery Designed to maintain balance in Congress between free and slave states

40 Monroe Doctrine James Monroe led Era of Good Feelings
Nation was confident and began to take control of North America against Europe Told European countries to stay out of our hemisphere

41 Jacksonian Democracy Andrew Jackson inspired universal male suffrage for common man Spoils System rewarded his supporters with govt jobs Indian Removal (Cherokees) on Trail of Tears from Georgia to Oklahoma Reform Movements: Education-Horace Mann, Temperance, Abolition

42 Nullification Crisis John C. Calhoun of South Carolina argued for states’ rights against federal laws President Jackson said the federal government was over states Henry Clay wrote compromise but leaders still argued issue until Civil War broke out

43 Seneca Falls Conference
Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the first women’s convention to call for women’s suffrage (the right to vote) First organized women’s rights movement

44 Manifest Destiny Idea that it was God’s will that Americans should expand the nation from sea to sea President Polk signed agreement to divide the Oregon Territory with Britain Newspaper articles encouraged people to move west on the Oregon Trail and live out this destiny

45 Mexican War War with Mexico over the border of Texas
US took New Mexico, California and paid Mexico for the new lands Gold was discovered in California led to Gold Rush of 1849 Gadsden Purchase was final strip of land below Arizona and New Mexico

46 Wilmot Proviso Plan to ban slavery from territory gained in the Mexican War Voted down in Congress over strong division on slavery

47 Compromise of 1850 Admitted California as a free state
Utah and New Mexico were allowed to vote on slavery – popular sovereignty

48 Kansas-Nebraska Act Allowed previously free territory to vote on slavery Ended in violence as both free and slave rushed to the territory – Bleeding Kansas

49 Dred Scott Case Court case Dred Scott, a slave, sued for his freedom
Court ruled that slaves were property and upheld slavery as legal

50 John Brown’s Raid Harper’s Ferry Virginia
Attempt to overtake federal arsenal and get weapons Weapons would be given to blacks who would help lead a slave rebellion John Brown was caught and executed

51 Emancipation Proclamation
President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed slaves free in Confederate states Encouraged free blacks to serve in the Union army

52 Gettysburg Turning point in the Civil War
Union forces won every major battle after this Bloodies battle in the war

53 Vicksburg Union troops took the last place on the Mississippi River under Confederate control Ulysses Grant laid siege to the city and citizens surrendered after almost starving

54 Battle of Atlanta William T. Sherman took the city
Began March to the Sea burning much of Georgia as his troops moved towards Savannah Civil War ended at Appomattox Court House with Robert E. Lee surrendering to Ulysses Grant

55 Presidential Reconstruction
After Lincoln’s assassination, Andrew Johnson became president His plan of ending the war was to rebuild the south Many southerners regained power under this plan

56 Radical Reconstruction
Members of the Republican Party took control of Reconstruction Plan was the punish the south for the Civil War Harsh guidelines were imposed

57 Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
Battle between Congress and Johnson over Reconstruction ended in impeachment of Johnson Found innocent but Johnson lost control of government

58 Freedmen’s Bureau First Federal Relief program
Designed to help former slaves Provided food, clothing, shelter, medical aid, education and even land Violent groups – Ku Klux Klan formed to fight against black rights

59 Industrialization Transcontinental Railroad Union Pacific and Central Pacific connected at Promontory Point, Utah built by Chinese and Irish immigrants Bessemer Process made steel cheaper John D. Rockefeller made millions with Standard Oil monopoly

60 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Feeling of Nativism- opposition to immigration grew in America Government tried to limit immigration to stop violent attacks against immigrants Prohibited Chinese immigrants from legally coming to America

61 Wounded Knee Settlers moved west for farming, cattle ranching, and mining Native Americans were forced to relocate to reservations Sioux Indians followed Wovoka in Ghost Dance ritual to regain lands Wounded Knee was sight on army massacre of unarmed Indian men, women and children

62 Plessy v. Ferguson Homer Plessy claimed Jim Crow laws of segregation were unconstitutional Supreme Court upheld Jim Crow Laws Separate but equal was alright if facilities were equal

63 Spanish-American War War with Spain – Lasted 3 months
Fought over Cuba and Philippines “A Splendid Little War” Divided US on Expansion and Isolationism Gained territory and control of Cuba, Guam, Philippines and Puerto Rico

64 Panama Canal Needed to allow US ships to travel between Caribbean and Pacific Oceans Started a revolution for Panama to be free from Columbian control Military and Economic purpose

65 Roosevelt Corollary Expanded Monroe Doctrine
US would intervene in Latin America if a nation had trouble paying its debt “Big Stick Diplomacy” – US would use force if needed

66 Progressive Era Muckrakers – Ida Tarbell revealed abuses of monopolies, Upton Sinclair revealed abuses in the meat packing industry Jane Addams opened settlement house – the Hull House for the poor Carrie Nation smashed saloons for prohibition – 18th Amendment Susan B. Anthony led women’s suffrage – 19th Amendment Jacob Riis – How the Other Half Lives- led struggles for labor and living improvements

67 NAACP Founding National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Devoted to progress of African American community Wanted political, legal and social equality

68 World War I Unrestricted submarine warfare by Germans – sinking of Lusitania led to anti-German hysteria Anti-German sentiment and Zimmerman Telegram caused Americans to call for war US entered in 1917, War ended in 1918 Great Migration - many blacks moved north for jobs

69 Russian Revolution 1917 – Overthrow of Russian Czar
Bolshevik Revolution ended the monarchy in Russia Communist Rulers took over Led to fear in US – Red Scare Anarchist bombings and assassinations spread more fear

70 Treaty of Versailles Ended World War I in Europe
US President Wilson presented Fourteen Point Peace Plan US signed a separate treaty Did not sign treaty because US feared commitment to League of Nations would be binding US returned to isolationism

71 Prohibition 18th Amendment ended the sale and manufacture of alcohol
Led to increased crime and illegal manufacture of alcohol

72 Harlem Renaissance Flowering of Black culture and heritage during the 1920s Black authors (Langston Hughes), musicians (Louis Armstrong) and actors portrayed a rich history of blacks Centered in Harlem, New York

73 Great Depression Overproduction and Underconsumption then Stock Market Speculation led to Stock Market crash People buying on credit Widespread unemployment Banks and Businesses closed Dust Bowl in Midwest caused more problems

74 Hoovervilles Homeless workers gathered in cities in shacks
Called Hoovervilles after President Hoover who was blamed for not responding to peoples needs

75 Tennessee Valley Authority
TVA Built Hydroelectric dams on the Tennessee River to create jobs and provide cheap electricity to the South

76 Second New Deal Second part of FDR’s New Deal
Designed to change laws and fix economic problems for future relief

77 Social Security Act Part of New Deal
Established retirement income for people over 65

78 Wagner Act Protected rights of workers
Allowed for collective bargaining for better working conditions Shift in govt to support workers and unions – pro-labor

79 Pearl Harbor Japanese attack brought US into WWII
“A day that will live in infamy” December 7, 1941 Japanese Americans were put in internment camps because of fear from the attack

80 War in the Pacific Japan invaded the Philippines and forced prisoners to walk across the island – the Bataan Death March Battle of Midway was turning point as US started island hopping and getting back one island at a time Kamikaze pilots were Japanese who crashed their planes into US ships in final effort to defeat Americans

81 Teheran Conference Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met to plan invasion of Europe and defeat Germany Called the Big Three Plan was known as D-Day – June 6,1944 General Dwight Eisenhower was to lead the amphibious invasion at Normandy

82 Yalta Conference Big Three Met again
Divided Germany into four zones after the war Promised Stalin (Soviets) land in parts of Europe after the defeat of Germany Stalin agreed to declare war on Japan

83 Potsdam Conference Truman, Churchill and Stalin agreed to allow only unconditional surrender of Japan Japan refused Truman decided to use the atomic bomb

84 Los Alamos US development of atomic bomb Manhattan Project
Tested the weapons at Los Alamos, New Mexico Truman authorized the use of the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japan finally surrendered

85 United Nations Peace keeping organization set up at end of WWII
Successful version of earlier League of Nations Led by a Security Council – 5 nations: US, Britain, France, Russia and China

86 Containment Policy After WWII – control the Soviets
Plan to contain communism and not allow it to spread to other nations Division between East and West Germany was called the Iron Curtain Eastern European countries were called Satellite Nations under Soviet Communism

87 Marshall Plan Plan to give aid to Western Europe to rebuild after WWII
Economic aid was designed to stop to influence of communism

88 Truman Doctrine After WWII
President Truman said US would intervene and aid countries overseas resisting communism Berlin, Germany was cut off from west by communists US sent supplies in Berlin Airlift

89 Revolution in India Attempt to overthrow British rule in India
Led by Gandhi (Hindu leader) as a nonviolent protest Pakistan created as an independent Muslim state

90 Formation of Nation of Israel
United Nations helped found country Holocaust of WWII left Jewish refugees without a home Zionism (Jewish nationalism) feeling grew Palestine was given to the Jews and many Arab nations resented US involvement

91 Chinese Communist Revolution
After WWII, Soviets supported communist revolution in China under Mao Nationalist Chinese fled to Taiwan Island

92 Korean War Communist North Korea invaded South Korea as an attempt to make it communist UN and US troops saved the South from takeover President Truman had integrated the military with blacks and whites fighting in same units Country remained divided

93 Sputnik1 Soviets launched first satellite into space
US quickly beefed up math and sciences in the schools to catch up with the communist Soviets Space Race had begun

94 Brown v. Board of Education
1954 court case that said there is no such thing as separate but equal Ended segregation in the schools Schools took almost 20 years to abide by the decision

95 Little Rock Incident Little Rock Central High School, Arkansas had nine black students attempt to attend Governor tried to stop them, President Eisenhower protected them James Meredith tried to attend the University of Mississippi- succeeded

96 Freedom Riders Civil rights struggle included efforts to end segregation on buses Freedom riders were young people of all races riding the bus lines across the south SNCC- Student Nonviolence Coordinating Committee formed by black college students

97 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Pushed through Congress by President Lyndon Johnson Prohibited segregation in public accommodations

98 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Allowed the president to suspend literacy tests for voter registration Registered black voters throughout the south

99 Globalization OPEC - Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Controls the cost and supply of oil from countries around the globe World Trade Organization - monitors countries to abide by trade agreements

100 NOW -National Organization of Women
Founded by Betty Friedan in the 1960s Advocated equality between men and women Group supporters were called feminists

101 Earth Day Started in April 1970
Attempt to save the earth from chemicals Became annual event to save the environment Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring wrote about pollution and chemical disasters

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