Presentation on theme: "Declaring Independence Ch. 10, Sec. 1, Part II Give Me Liberty, Or Give Me Death! Research and determine which side was successful in the beginning stages."— Presentation transcript:
Declaring Independence Ch. 10, Sec. 1, Part II Give Me Liberty, Or Give Me Death! Research and determine which side was successful in the beginning stages of the war and what had to be done before the Declaration of Independence became a reality.
The Continental Army Is Formed -The Second Continental Congress- After the first battle at Lexington and Concord, colonial militiamen from all over New England began surrounding the British Army at Boston. There was however, no regular American Army at this time. Patriots, Rebels, Continentals, Yankees, Americans, Colonials-The names given to the Americans during the war. British, Regulars, Lobsterbacks, Redcoats, Loyalists, Tories-The name given to those who were British or sympathetic to Great Britain during the Revolution. On May 10 th, 1775, the Continental Congress again met in Philadelphia. 1) The Continental Army was officially formed and 2) George Washington was chosen as its commander in chief. Delegates from North Carolina were Joseph Hewes, John Penn and William Hooper.
The Capture of Ft. Ticonderoga Shortly after the Continental Congress met, a small American force under Ethan Allen captured the mighty British fort at Ft. Ticonderoga without firing a shot. They were after the artillery, or the cannons that were stored there. They then transported these guns to Boston where they were used to keep the British there under siege.
April 17 th, 1775 Surrounded by the Americans in Boston, the British force there under General William Howe decided to break the siege and attack the Americans on the heights above them. After a terrific barrage by British artillery and warships, over 2,000 highly-trained regulars marched up the slopes of Bunker and Breeds Hill, straight at the waiting militiamen. British losses were terrible. Only when the Americans ran out of ammunition did the British drive them from the field. One-half or over 1,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded in the battle. The Americans had proven that with proper leadership and motivation, they could stand up to the most powerful army in the world.
Dont fire until you see the whites of their eyes! The African-American at left, above, is Peter Salem. A known sharpshooter, Salem is the one credited with shooting down the British commander Major John Pitcairn during the battle. Salem also took part in several other battles of the Revolution.
The British Infantry began the march four abreast, being led the by Light Infantry. The sun was hot, and the soldiers were sweating heavily in their red wool uniforms, straining under the weight of blankets, ammunition, musket and three days worth of rations. From the American positions above them, fire spit forth from hundreds of muskets, cutting the British soldiers down in their ranks as they plodded on. The gallantry of the British infantry, in their beautiful scarlet uniforms, and memories of fighting alongside them in the French and Indian War, stirred profound feelings among most of the Americans. Again and again, the British infantrymen were mowed down and mangled by the Rebels looking down upon them on Bunker and Breeds Hill. As one soldier was shot, another stepped over his body and took his place in the line of battle.
WHAT! These peasants are to keep five thousand of His Majestys troops shut up? -General John Burgoyne-
A Last Attempt At Peace Even after the terrible battle at Bunker Hill, there was still one more attempt at peace between England and the American colonies. In July of 1775, the Olive Branch Petition was written and sent to King George. The King immediately rejected the last attempt at peace. His response was to hire thousands of German mercenaries to help put down the rebellion. Hessians-German mercenaries that fought alongside the British army.
Common Sense In early 1776, Thomas Paines pamphlet, Common Sense was published. His writing made it clear to the colonies that a complete and total break with England was necessary and the time was right for the Americans to create their own country and government. He also argued that, all monarchies are corrupt. Common Sense was a bestseller and an instant success.
The War in North Carolina Moores Creek Bridge, February 27 th, 1776 The first battle of the Revolution in North Carolina. NC Loyalists were trying to join up with regular British soldiers. The Patriots hid alongside of Moores Creek and ambushed the Loyalists when they marched across the bridge. In the three-minute battle, over 50 Loyalists were killed and nearly their entire force was captured by the Americans. This battle helped ensure that the British would not gain complete control over the Southern colonies.
The Halifax Resolves Adopted on April 12 th, 1776. A group of North Carolina Patriots adopted the Halifax Resolves, which advocated for the very first call for independence from Great Britain. To concur with the delegates of other Colonies in declaring Independency, and forming foreign alliances, reserving to this colony the sole and exclusive fight to forming a Constitution and laws for the Colony. Not only did the resolves call for NC to do so, but it also asked that all the 13 colonies do so as well. Not long after this, the Declaration of Independence was drafted. North Carolina also appointed its first governor at this time. The man was Richard Caswell and he had been an important Patriot leader at the Battle of Moores Creek Bridge.
The Declaration of Independence -A Time of Decision- On July 4 th, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was adopted and ratified by the Congress. The basic principle of the document was that people across the world have certain, unalienable rights that a government cannot take away. These rights are, Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. The Congress reasoned that if a government disregards these rights, then it loses its rights to govern. The people then have the right to abolish that government by force, if necessary. The Declaration also specifically outlined the reasons why the colonies were breaking away from England and what King George III had done to them. There were 27 grievances listed in all against King George and Great Britain. Now, the only thing that the colonies had to do was win the war.
Men From North Carolina That Signed the Declaration of Independence Joseph Hewes - Born into a Quaker family with strong religious convictions. Becoming a well-known merchant in Edenton, Hewes was elected into the NC Colonial Assembly in 1766. John Penn – After practicing law in Virginia for 12 years, Penn moved to Granville County, NC in 1775 when he was chosen to become a delegate at the Continental Congress. William Hooper – Moving to NC from Massachusetts in 1764, Hooper was a well-known lawyer that also served as a delegate at the Continental Congress.
The Signers of the Declaration of Independence Besides Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin, there were 54 other signers of this document. Out of these 56, 29 of the men held Seminary degrees!
Roger Sherman Roger Sherman, one of the 56 signers, was the only American to sign all four of the great state papers that created the United States: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution of the United States. Thomas Jefferson once said of Sherman, That is, Mr. Sherman, of Connecticut, is a man that never said a foolish thing in his entire life. Sherman was also one of the five who drafted the Declaration.
Benjamin Rush Rush, another signer of the Declaration, was a physician, writer, educator, humanitarian, and a devout Christian. He was also an early opponent of the institution of slavery and capital punishment. In addition to being an active member of the Sons of Liberty, Rush also assisted Thomas Paine in writing his famous work, Common Sense.
The North Carolina Constitution of 1776 Once the Declaration of Independence was adopted, British laws and royal governors were no longer recognized within the colonies. In North Carolina, a committee appointed by the newly-created provincial congress wrote the states first constitution. This new constitution drew upon the English Bill of Rights and upon the constitutions of several other states. Unlike the old, royal government, the majority of the powers were given to the men of the assembly and not the royal governor. It also required that all persons running for office be of the Protestant faith.
North Carolinas First Independent Governor When the Patriot leaders in North Carolina, along with the other 12 colonies, declared independence from Great Britain, they immediately began organizing a new state government, free from British rule and influence. In 1777, Richard Caswell, a well-known soldier and American statesman, became the first governor of the state of North Carolina. He would then guide the state throughout the trying years of the Revolutionary War.
1.Describe the main idea or premise of the Declaration of Independence. Who were three men to have signed the document. 2. He was the reigning British monarch at the time of the Revolution. 3. This individual became the first non-royal governor of North Carolina. 4. Who wrote Common Sense and why was this pamphlet such a success for the American cause? 5. This document, drawn up by North Carolinians, made the first call for independence from Great Britain. It was also ratified on this date. 6. Name the three delegates from North Carolina that were present for the Second Continental Congress and who signed the Declaration of Independence. 7. A ____________ is the name given to a German mercenary hired by the British government. 8. February 27, 1776. This battle ensured that the British would not control the Southern colonies at the beginning of the war. 9. Tell the main reason why the Americans decided to attack Fort Ticonderoga. (What was there to use?) 10. Explain what two decisions were made by the Second Continental Congress on May 10, 1775.