Presentation on theme: "Declaring Independence"— Presentation transcript:
1 Declaring Independence The Road to RevolutionDeclaring Independence
2 May 10, 1775: Second Continental Congress 3 weeks after Lexington & Concord in Philadelphia, PADeclaring independence was a long way offAttendees:John Adams & Samuel AdamsPatrick Henry & George WashingtonBenjamin FranklinDuring the Stamp Act crisis, herepresented the colonies in LondonHelped repeal the Stamp ActJohn HancockPresident of the CongressThomas JeffersonMember of Virginia House of BurgessesFocus on the fact that it is almost immediately following the attacks in Boston & that all 13 colonies are represented.
5 Decisions of the Congress Begin to govern the coloniesSet up a post officeFranklin in chargeEstablished committees as ambassadorsCreate Continental Army to fight BritishUnanimously chose Washington to leadAuthorized to print money to pay armyAll of this can go under the “Second Continental Congress” sub-heading…discuss how Franklin really expresses the importance of VA…also point out how Washington is in full military dress…tell them when it is over that the Battles of Bunker Hill actually take place after the creation of the army, before Washington makes it to BostonShow the 2nd clip from the John Adams video here: Franklin Counsels Adams to court Virginia and select Washington commander 9:00-17:35
6 Battle of Bunker Hill Boston, MA 1775 Militia seized Bunker Hill & Breed’s Hill & fortified Breed’s HillFought on Breed’s HillWilliam Prescott, “Don’t Fire until you see the whites of their eyes”Dr. James Warren, member of the Sons of Liberty, was killedEnglish win battle at huge cost(1,000 killed or wounded)…make mention of the fighting and tell them you will show them where these events take place on a map on a later slide. The battles are a loss for the Americans, however, you can give them the analogy of a moral victory & how they felt they could now fight with the British & hold their own.
7 Avoid War Offered one last chance to avoid all-out war Sent the Olive Branch PetitionFormal request for peaceRequested king to protect colonists’ rightsKing rejected the petition & sought to punish the coloniesHired 30,000 German soldiers & sent to fight with British called HessiansCreate a new subheading.After the video make mention of what will happen to these men if they continue on their course (death by hanging).Show the 1st clip from John Adams: Olive Branch Petition - 00:00-6:05 & George's Reaction to Olive Branch, Colonies declared in rebellion, Franklin "all hang separately" 22:57-25:10
8 Siege of Boston Continental Army surrounded the British in Boston, MA Washington had artillery captured at Fort Ticonderoga moved to Dorchester Heights overlooking BostonContinental Army controlled the high ground & threatened to bombard the CityBritish General Howe withdrew his troopsMention Charlestown (where Revere made his ride from), Bunker & Breed’s Hill are the raised areas just north of Charlestown…make mention of the different British regiments (red boxes) stationed throughout the Boston area.Show the 4th video: Knox and artillery from Ticonderoga, Dorchester Heights 26:29-28:47
9 “Common Sense” Militias form into continental regiments Washington takes Montreal (November 1775)Common Sense is publishedWritten by Thomas PainePamphlet argues it’s common sense to embrace independence from BritainApril 1776 more colonists support independenceMention to them that over 100,000 copies of the document were sold in the first 3 months after it was printed. There were approx. over 1 million people in the colonies at that time, that means 1 out of every 10 people purchased that pamphlet. The NY Times best sellers normally are added to that list if the book sells at least 4,000 a week, that ratio would mean that over 30 million people who have bought that in today!
10 Declaring Independence May 1776Richard Henry Lee introduced idea of “free and independent states”Resolution debated in CongressCommittee formed to write the DeclarationCommittee of 5Thomas Jefferson is main authorTell them we will watch the Adams video which show the resolution and the debate surrounding it. Show that after the last slide.
11 Declaration Committee Benjamin FranklinJohn AdamsDiscuss the future government power that was in the committee: Franklin is the most well known of them all, was a delegate to England during the Stamp Act crisis, proposer of the Albany Plan, etc; Adams & Jefferson are both future presidents; Livingston, at the Constitutional Convention proposes one of the 4 most well-known plans (the New Jersey Plan), which we will discuss later in the year; Sherman is also at that convention, he proposes the Connecticut (Great) Compromise which is the basis for our government today – 2 house legislature with one house by population, the other equal representation & an executive President. VERY BIG POLITICAL HEAVYWEIGHTS!!Thomas JeffersonRobert LivingstonRoger Sherman
12 Writing the Declaration of Independence The house on the left is where the committee wrote the Declaration.-Tell them we will watch a scene in the video which illustrates the picture on the right.
13 Declaring Independence July 4, 1776Congress approves a revised Declaration of Independence5 partsPreamble = IntroductionRights of the PeopleList of GrievancesEfforts to avoid separationIndependence DeclaredThe video should take about 20 minutes, if there is well over 30 minutes left, go ahead and read the Declaration in class. After the grievances, see if they can tell who they are directed at (King George III) & how they don’t direct any of it at Parliament. If we don’t have time, no worries.