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Declaring Independence

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Presentation on theme: "Declaring Independence"— Presentation transcript:

1 Declaring Independence
The Road to Revolution Declaring Independence

2 May 10, 1775: Second Continental Congress
3 weeks after Lexington & Concord in Philadelphia, PA Declaring independence was a long way off Attendees: John Adams & Samuel Adams Patrick Henry & George Washington Benjamin Franklin During the Stamp Act crisis, he represented the colonies in London Helped repeal the Stamp Act John Hancock President of the Congress Thomas Jefferson Member of Virginia House of Burgesses Focus on the fact that it is almost immediately following the attacks in Boston & that all 13 colonies are represented.



5 Decisions of the Congress
Begin to govern the colonies Set up a post office Franklin in charge Established committees as ambassadors Create Continental Army to fight British Unanimously chose Washington to lead Authorized to print money to pay army All of this can go under the “Second Continental Congress” sub-heading …discuss how Franklin really expresses the importance of VA…also point out how Washington is in full military dress…tell them when it is over that the Battles of Bunker Hill actually take place after the creation of the army, before Washington makes it to Boston Show the 2nd clip from the John Adams video here: Franklin Counsels Adams to court Virginia and select Washington commander 9:00-17:35

6 Battle of Bunker Hill Boston, MA 1775
Militia seized Bunker Hill & Breed’s Hill & fortified Breed’s Hill Fought on Breed’s Hill William Prescott, “Don’t Fire until you see the whites of their eyes” Dr. James Warren, member of the Sons of Liberty, was killed English win battle at huge cost (1,000 killed or wounded) …make mention of the fighting and tell them you will show them where these events take place on a map on a later slide. The battles are a loss for the Americans, however, you can give them the analogy of a moral victory & how they felt they could now fight with the British & hold their own.

7 Avoid War Offered one last chance to avoid all-out war
Sent the Olive Branch Petition Formal request for peace Requested king to protect colonists’ rights King rejected the petition & sought to punish the colonies Hired 30,000 German soldiers & sent to fight with British  called Hessians Create a new subheading. After the video make mention of what will happen to these men if they continue on their course (death by hanging). Show the 1st clip from John Adams: Olive Branch Petition - 00:00-6:05 & George's Reaction to Olive Branch, Colonies declared in rebellion, Franklin "all hang separately" 22:57-25:10

8 Siege of Boston Continental Army surrounded the British in Boston, MA
Washington had artillery captured at Fort Ticonderoga moved to Dorchester Heights overlooking Boston Continental Army controlled the high ground & threatened to bombard the City British General Howe withdrew his troops Mention Charlestown (where Revere made his ride from), Bunker & Breed’s Hill are the raised areas just north of Charlestown…make mention of the different British regiments (red boxes) stationed throughout the Boston area. Show the 4th video: Knox and artillery from Ticonderoga, Dorchester Heights 26:29-28:47

9 “Common Sense” Militias form into continental regiments
Washington takes Montreal (November 1775) Common Sense is published Written by Thomas Paine Pamphlet argues it’s common sense to embrace independence from Britain April 1776 more colonists support independence Mention to them that over 100,000 copies of the document were sold in the first 3 months after it was printed. There were approx. over 1 million people in the colonies at that time, that means 1 out of every 10 people purchased that pamphlet. The NY Times best sellers normally are added to that list if the book sells at least 4,000 a week, that ratio would mean that over 30 million people who have bought that in today!

10 Declaring Independence
May 1776 Richard Henry Lee introduced idea of “free and independent states” Resolution debated in Congress Committee formed to write the Declaration Committee of 5 Thomas Jefferson is main author Tell them we will watch the Adams video which show the resolution and the debate surrounding it. Show that after the last slide.

11 Declaration Committee
Benjamin Franklin John Adams Discuss the future government power that was in the committee: Franklin is the most well known of them all, was a delegate to England during the Stamp Act crisis, proposer of the Albany Plan, etc; Adams & Jefferson are both future presidents; Livingston, at the Constitutional Convention proposes one of the 4 most well-known plans (the New Jersey Plan), which we will discuss later in the year; Sherman is also at that convention, he proposes the Connecticut (Great) Compromise which is the basis for our government today – 2 house legislature with one house by population, the other equal representation & an executive President. VERY BIG POLITICAL HEAVYWEIGHTS!! Thomas Jefferson Robert Livingston Roger Sherman

12 Writing the Declaration of Independence
The house on the left is where the committee wrote the Declaration. -Tell them we will watch a scene in the video which illustrates the picture on the right.

13 Declaring Independence
July 4, 1776 Congress approves a revised Declaration of Independence 5 parts Preamble = Introduction Rights of the People List of Grievances Efforts to avoid separation Independence Declared The video should take about 20 minutes, if there is well over 30 minutes left, go ahead and read the Declaration in class. After the grievances, see if they can tell who they are directed at (King George III) & how they don’t direct any of it at Parliament. If we don’t have time, no worries.

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