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ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by.

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Presentation on theme: "ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by."— Presentation transcript:

1 ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY PART B The Nervous System

2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Reflex Arc  Reflex – rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli  Reflex arc – direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an effector Figure 7.11a

3 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Simple Reflex Arc Figure 7.11b–c

4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Reflexes and Regulation  Autonomic reflexes  Smooth muscle regulation  Heart and blood pressure regulation  Regulation of glands  Digestive system regulation  Somatic reflexes  Activation of skeletal muscles

5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Central Nervous System (CNS)  CNS develops from the embryonic neural tube  The neural tube becomes the brain and spinal cord  The opening of the neural tube becomes the ventricles  Four chambers within the brain  Filled with cerebrospinal fluid

6 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regions of the Brain  Cerebral hemispheres  Diencephalon  Brain stem  Cerebellum Figure 7.12b

7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum)  Paired (left and right) superior parts of the brain  Include more than half of the brain mass Figure 7.13a

8 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum)  The surface is made of ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci) Figure 7.13a

9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lobes of the Cerebrum  Fissures (deep grooves) divide the cerebrum into lobes  Surface lobes of the cerebrum  Frontal lobe  Parietal lobe  Occipital lobe  Temporal lobe

10 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lobes of the Cerebrum Figure 7.15a

11 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum  Somatic sensory area – receives impulses from the body’s sensory receptors  Primary motor area – sends impulses to skeletal muscles  Broca’s area – involved in our ability to speak

12 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sensory and Motor Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Figure 7.14

13 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum  Cerebral areas involved in special senses  Gustatory area (taste)  Visual area  Auditory area  Olfactory area

14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum  Interpretation areas of the cerebrum  Speech/language region  Language comprehension region  General interpretation area

15 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Figure 7.13c

16 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Layers of the Cerebrum  Gray matter  Outer layer  Composed mostly of neuron cell bodies Figure 7.13a

17 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Layers of the Cerebrum  White matter  Fiber tracts inside the gray matter  Example: corpus callosum connects hemispheres Figure 7.13a

18 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Layers of the Cerebrum  Basal nuclei – internal islands of gray matter Figure 7.13a

19 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Diencephalon  Sits on top of the brain stem  Enclosed by the cerebral heispheres  Made of three parts  Thalamus  Hypothalamus  Epithalamus

20 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Diencephalon Figure 7.15

21 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Thalamus  Surrounds the third ventricle  The relay station for sensory impulses  Transfers impulses to the correct part of the cortex for localization and interpretation

22 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hypothalamus  Under the thalamus  Important autonomic nervous system center  Helps regulate body temperature  Controls water balance  Regulates metabolism

23 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hypothalamus  An important part of the limbic system (emotions)  The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus

24 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Epithalamus  Forms the roof of the third ventricle  Houses the pineal body (an endocrine gland)  Includes the choroid plexus – forms cerebrospinal fluid

25 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Brain Stem  Attaches to the spinal cord  Parts of the brain stem  Midbrain  Pons  Medulla oblongata

26 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Brain Stem Figure 7.15a

27 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Midbrain  Mostly composed of tracts of nerve fibers  Has two bulging fiber tracts – cerebral peduncles  Has four rounded protrusions – corpora quadrigemina  Reflex centers for vision and hearing

28 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pons  The bulging center part of the brain stem  Mostly composed of fiber tracts  Includes nuclei involved in the control of breathing

29 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Medulla Oblongata  The lowest part of the brain stem  Merges into the spinal cord  Includes important fiber tracts  Contains important control centers  Heart rate control  Blood pressure regulation  Breathing  Swallowing  Vomiting

30 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Reticular Formation  Diffuse mass of gray matter along the brain stem  Involved in motor control of visceral organs  Reticular activating system plays a role in awake/sleep cycles and consciousness

31 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Reticular Formation Figure 7.15b


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