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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 7.23 – 7.42 Seventh Edition Elaine.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 7.23 – 7.42 Seventh Edition Elaine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 7.23 – 7.42 Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 7 The Nervous System Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook

2 The Reflex Arc Slide 7.23 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Reflex – rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli  Reflex arc – direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an effector Figure 7.11a

3 Simple Reflex Arc Slide 7.24 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.11b, c

4 Types of Reflexes and Regulation Slide 7.25 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Autonomic reflexes  Smooth muscle regulation  Heart and blood pressure regulation  Regulation of glands  Digestive system regulation  Somatic reflexes  Activation of skeletal muscles

5 Central Nervous System (CNS) Slide 7.26 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  CNS develops from the embryonic neural tube  The neural tube becomes the brain and spinal cord  The opening of the neural tube becomes the ventricles  Four chambers within the brain  Filled with cerebrospinal fluid

6 Regions of the Brain Slide 7.27 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Cerebral hemispheres  Diencephalon  Brain stem  Cerebellum Figure 7.12

7 Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum) Slide 7.28a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Paired (left and right) superior parts of the brain  Include more than half of the brain mass Figure 7.13a

8 Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum) Slide 7.28b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The surface is made of ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci) Figure 7.13a

9 Lobes of the Cerebrum Slide 7.29a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Fissures (deep grooves) divide the cerebrum into lobes  Surface lobes of the cerebrum  Frontal lobe  Parietal lobe  Occipital lobe  Temporal lobe

10 Lobes of the Cerebrum Slide 7.29b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.15a

11 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Slide 7.30 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Somatic sensory area – receives impulses from the body’s sensory receptors  Primary motor area – sends impulses to skeletal muscles  Broca’s area – involved in our ability to speak

12 Sensory and Motor Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Slide 7.31 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.14

13 Specialized Area of the Cerebrum Slide 7.32a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Cerebral areas involved in special senses  Gustatory area (taste)  Visual area  Auditory area  Olfactory area

14 Specialized Area of the Cerebrum Slide 7.32b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Interpretation areas of the cerebrum  Speech/language region  Language comprehension region  General interpretation area

15 Specialized Area of the Cerebrum Slide 7.32c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.13c

16 Layers of the Cerebrum Slide 7.33a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Gray matter  Outer layer  Composed mostly of neuron cell bodies Figure 7.13a

17 Layers of the Cerebrum Slide 7.33b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  White matter  Fiber tracts inside the gray matter  Example: corpus callosum connects hemispheres Figure 7.13a

18 Layers of the Cerebrum Slide 7.33c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Basal nuclei – internal islands of gray matter Figure 7.13a

19 Diencephalon Slide 7.34a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Sits on top of the brain stem  Enclosed by the cerebral heispheres  Made of three parts  Thalamus  Hypothalamus  Epithalamus

20 Diencephalon Slide 7.34b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.15

21 Thalamus Slide 7.35 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Surrounds the third ventricle  The relay station for sensory impulses  Transfers impulses to the correct part of the cortex for localization and interpretation

22 Hypothalamus Slide 7.36a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Under the thalamus  Important autonomic nervous system center  Helps regulate body temperature  Controls water balance  Regulates metabolism

23 Hypothalamus Slide 7.36b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  An important part of the limbic system (emotions)  The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus

24 Epithalamus Slide 7.37 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Forms the roof of the third ventricle  Houses the pineal body (an endocrine gland)  Includes the choroid plexus – forms cerebrospinal fluid

25 Brain Stem Slide 7.38a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Attaches to the spinal cord  Parts of the brain stem  Midbrain  Pons  Medulla oblongata

26 Brain Stem Slide 7.38b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.15a

27 Midbrain Slide 7.39 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Mostly composed of tracts of nerve fibers  Has two bulging fiber tracts – cerebral peduncles  Has four rounded protrusions – corpora quadrigemina  Reflex centers for vision and hearing

28 Pons Slide 7.40 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The bulging center part of the brain stem  Mostly composed of fiber tracts  Includes nuclei involved in the control of breathing

29 Medulla Oblongata Slide 7.41 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The lowest part of the brain stem  Merges into the spinal cord  Includes important fiber tracts  Contains important control centers  Heart rate control  Blood pressure regulation  Breathing  Swallowing  Vomiting

30 Reticular Formation Slide 7.42a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Diffuse mass of gray matter along the brain stem  Involved in motor control of visceral organs  Reticular activating system plays a role in awake/sleep cycles and consciousness

31 Reticular Formation Slide 7.42b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.15b


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