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Introduction to course Needs Maslow Erikson Attachment

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1 Introduction to course Needs Maslow Erikson Attachment
Psychology Introduction to course Needs Maslow Erikson Attachment

2 Definition of Psychology
The term comes from Greek Psyche meaning mind Logy meaning study of

3 5 Approaches of Psychology
The psycho analytic – our thoughts feelings and behaviours are the result of unconscious mental processes formed in early childhood The behaviourist approach states that behaviours are the result of our leaning in our environment The cognitive approach – states that our thoughts feelings and behaviours are the result of thinking or problem solving The biological approach the is approach states that these factors are the results of genetics and physiology The humanistic approach – states the way we think feel and act are the result of psychologically healthy or unhealthy self or self image.

4 Needs Physical Intellectual/Cognitive Emotional Social

5 Needs Physical Intellectual/Cognitive
Cultural – reflecting language religion etc Emotional Social

6 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

7 Erikson

8 A typical Baby

9 Grows up to become

10 Group exercise In four groups What are the needs of children 0-1
2 years 3 – 5 years 6-11 years Do they fit with Erikson’s theory?

11 Attachment An intense emotional relationship that is specific to two people, that endures over time, and in which prolonged separation for the partner is accompanied by stress and sorrow.

12 Phases of Attachment Pre Attachment Phase. At 6 weeks child begins to smile gurgle to just about anyone Indiscriminate Attachment3 months Infant can tell familiar and unfamiliar people. child is happy to be handled by just about anyone

13 Phases of Attachment Discriminate Attachment 3-7 months Can distinguish mother from others. may show fear response if direct contact with strangers Multiple Attachments Phase 7 months on Bonds formed with grandparents siblings and other caregivers. Strongest attachment to main carer

14 Phases of Development

15 Mother’s sensitivity The sensitive mother sees things from her baby's perspec­tive, correctly interprets its signals, responds to its needs, and is accepting, co-operative and accessible the insensitive mother interacts almost exclusively in terms of her own wishes, moods and activities

16 The Strange Situation Mary Ainsworth

17 Phases of the strange situation
Observer introduces mother and baby to experimental room, then leaves. Mother is non-participant while baby explores; if necessary, play is stimulated after 2 minutes Stranger enters. First minute: stranger silent. Second Minute: stranger converses with mother. Third minute: Stranger approaches baby. After 3 minutes, mother Leaves unobtrusively. First separation episode. Stranger's behaviour is geared to that of baby.

18 Last 4 stages First reunion episode. Mother greets and/or comforts Baby, then tries to settle the baby again in play. Mother then leaves, saying 'bye-bye'. Second separation episode. Continuation of second separation. Stranger enters and gears her behaviour to that of baby. Second reunion episode. Mother enters greets baby, Then picks up baby. Meanwhile, stranger leaves Unobtrusively.

19 Type A 15% Baby largely ignores mother, because of indifference towards her: play is little affected by whether she is present or absent. No or few signs of distress when mother leaves and actively ignores or avoids her on her return. Distress is caused by being alone, rather than being left by the mother; can be as easily comforted by the stranger as by the mother. In fact, both adults are treated in a very similar way.

20 Type B 70% Baby plays happily while the mother is present, whether the stranger is present or not. Mother is largely 'ignored' because she can be trusted to be there if needed. Clearly distressed when mother" leaves and play is considerably reduced. Seeks immediate contact with mother on her return, is quickly calmed down in her arms and resumes play. The distress is caused by the mother's absence, not being alone. Although the stranger can provide some comfort, she and the mother are treated very differently.

21 Type C 15% Baby is fussy and wary while the mother is present; cries a lot more and explores much less than types A and B and has difficulty using mother as a safe base. Very distressed when mother leaves, seeks contact with her on her return, but simultaneously shows anger and resists contact; e.g. may approach her and reach out to be picked up, but then struggles to get down again. This demonstrates the baby's ambivalence towards her. Doesn't return readily to play. Actively resists stranger's efforts to make contact.

22 Implications for Social care
How and why do we come across children with faulty attachment? What can help? Can children recover? How do we help children recover? What are their needs at the early stages of their lives?

23 Resume Looked at processes of emotional social development
8 Psychosocial stages A framework for considering the different needs of people

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