Presentation on theme: "How do we develop relations with other people? Bowlby’s ethological theory of attachment Measuring the quality of attachment Mary Ainsworth’s ‘Strange."— Presentation transcript:
How do we develop relations with other people? Bowlby’s ethological theory of attachment Measuring the quality of attachment Mary Ainsworth’s ‘Strange Situation’ Mary Main’s adult-attachment interview Judith Harris’ The Nurture Assumption
Bowlby’s ethological theory: built-in behaviours: attachment behaviours 1) signal behaviour: bring mother to infant 2) approach behav: bring infant to mother
Phases of Attachment PhaseAge Characteristics 1. Preattachment0 to 1.5 mos. Infant indiscriminately coos and clings. 2. Attachment- in-the-making 1.5 to 7 mos. Infant begins to show preferences for specific individuals. 3. Clear-cut attachment 7 mos. to 2 yrs. Infant forms attachment bond. 4. Goal- corrected partnership 2 years to adult Child takes into account caregiver’s needs as well as own needs.
Strange Situation EventWhat to watch for: 1. Mother, infant enter room. 2. Infant explores room. Is infant curious? Does infant use mother as base for exploring? 3. Stranger enters, talks to mother, approaches infant. 4. Mother leaves room, leaving infant with stranger. Degree of separation anxiety and stranger anxiety. 5. Mother returns to room; stranger leaves. How does infant react to being reunited with mother? 6. Mother leaves room; infant alone. Degree of separation anxiety. 7. Stranger enters room.Degree of stranger anxiety. 8. Mother returns, stranger leaves. Infant’s reaction to reunion. Degree of stranger anxiety.
Patterns of Attachment Securely attached (65%) Children show distress when parent leaves room; seek comfort and contact upon reunion; then return to play. Insecurely attached-avoidant (20%) Children seem aloof and may actively avoid parent upon return. Insecurely attached-ambivalent (10%) Children become upset when parent leaves; at reunion they cannot be comforted and show anger to parent but, at the same time, express desire for contact. Insecurely attached-disorganized (5%) Children act confused upon reunion. After parent’s return, they may stop moving or show contradictory behaviour patterns.
What Mary Main’s Data Show: Adult pattern of attachment Children’s style of attachment Memory for childhood relationships View of themselves as adults View of relationships Experience of intimate partnerships Autonomoussecure easily recall exp. with parents Believe they are likable by others Characterize love by trust tend to be more caring Dismissiveavoidant indifferent to feelings about relat. describe selves as independent believe they don’t need partner fear of intimacy Preoccupiedambivalent confused about past relationships have many self-doubts view love as painful struggle difficulty staying in love Disorganizeddisorganized Confused and uncertain about past relationships; usually suffering from unresolved childhood traumas.
Group Socialization theory: (Judith Harris) Socialization is a highly context-dependent form of learning. Cinderella effect