Presentation on theme: "Fallacies (Errors in Logic). What is a Fallacy? A Fallacy is an argument that is flawed by its very nature or structure Be aware of your opponents using."— Presentation transcript:
What is a Fallacy? A Fallacy is an argument that is flawed by its very nature or structure Be aware of your opponents using these, and call them out on them.
Fallacies of Logical Argument Claims that are invalid, insufficient or disconnected Hasty Generalization – an inference drawn from insufficient evidence Post Hoc ergo Propter Hoc: after this, therefore because of this) – assuming that because one event follows another, the first caused the second (Handguns will reduce crime).
Non sequitur – the logic of the argument is not connected: I stole the lipstick because the sky was blue. “We had been discussing plumbing, so her remark about astrology was a real non sequitur.”astrology
Fallacies of Emotional Argument (II) Sentimental Appeals – using excessive emotions to distract from the facts – often entail a guilt trip Bandwagon Appeals – suggest that the reader should be persuaded because everyone else is
Hasty Generalizations/ Stereotypes also known as "fallacy of insufficient statistics" Unreliable Authority
Ad Hominem (“to the man”) – assaulting a debater's character, rather then the logic of his/her argument
Fallacies of Emotional Argument Use of excessive or inappropriate emotionalism Scare Tactics – exaggerating dangers or reducing complicated issues to threats Either/Or Choices – require people to choose 1 of 2 options – oversimplify Slippery Slope – threatens successively amplified consequences for small actions