# Speaking Persuasively. AV Aids & Props Guidelines for the Ethical Use of Evidence.

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Speaking Persuasively

AV Aids & Props Guidelines for the Ethical Use of Evidence

AV Aids & Props 1.Provide evidence from credible sources.

AV Aids & Props 2. Identify your sources of evidence

AV Aids & Props 3. Use evidence that can be verified by experts

AV Aids & Props 4. Be sure that such evidence has not been corrupted

AV Aids & Props 5. Acknowledge disagreements among experts

AV Aids & Props 6. Do not withhold important information

AV Aids & Props 7. Use expert testimony to establish facts

AV Aids & Props 7B. Use prestige testimony to enhance credibility

AV Aids & Props 7C. Use lay testimony to create identification

AV Aids & Props 8. Quote or paraphrase accurately and in context

Common fallacies in logic A. The slippery slope: arguing that one bad thing will lead to many

Common fallacies in logic B. Confusing fact and opinion: asserting opinions as if they were facts

Common fallacies in logic C. The Red Herring: Distracting listeners with irrelevant information

Common fallacies in logic D. The Myth of the Mean: using a statistical average to hide a problem

Common fallacies in logic E. Flawed Statistical Comparison: using percentage increases or decreases in a misleading way

Common fallacies in logic F. The Ad Hominem fallacy: attacking people instead of issues

Common fallacies in logic G. Begging the Question: assuming as a done deal what has not yet been proven

Common fallacies in logic H. The Shaky Principle: Basing an argument on an unsound assumption

Common fallacies in logic I. Omitted qualifiers: confusing probability with certainty by leaving out conditions

Common fallacies in logic J. The Post Hoc fallacy: assuming that event A causes event B just because B follows A

Common fallacies in logic K. The Hasty Generalization: drawing conclusions based on insufficient or non- representative observations

Common fallacies in logic L. The Non Sequitur: reasoning in which principles are unrelated to each other or to the conclusion

Common fallacies in logic M.The faulty analogy: comparing things that are dissimilar in significant ways

Common fallacies in logic N. The Either-Or Fallacy: suggesting to listeners that they have only two options

Common fallacies in logic O. The Straw Man fallacy: belittling or trivializing otherwise convincing arguments

Advantages of Using Presentation Aids 6. They add variety and interest. McGuire’s Five Steps to Persuasion

Advantages of Using Presentation Aids 6. They add variety and interest. Awareness

Advantages of Using Presentation Aids 6. They add variety and interest. Understanding

Advantages of Using Presentation Aids 6. They add variety and interest. Agreement

Advantages of Using Presentation Aids 6. They add variety and interest. Enactment

Advantages of Using Presentation Aids 6. They add variety and interest. Integration

AV Aids & Props Winning over a reluctant audience

AV Aids & Props Establish goodwill & Identification early

AV Aids & Props Emphasize explanation over argument

AV Aids & Props Cite authorities your audience will respect

AV Aids & Props Set Modest Goals for Change

AV Aids & Props Make a multisided approach

The Innoculation Effect Arming your audience with the information and arguments that will help them withstand the arguments of opponents

Advantages of Using Presentation Aids 6. They add variety and interest. Remind listeners what is at stake Moving an Audience to Action

Advantages of Using Presentation Aids 6. They add variety and interest. Provide a clear, specific plan of action Moving an Audience to Action

Advantages of Using Presentation Aids 6. They add variety and interest. Visualize the consequences of acting or not acting Moving an Audience to Action

Advantages of Using Presentation Aids 6. They add variety and interest. Demonstrate that you practice what you preach Moving an Audience to Action

Advantages of Using Presentation Aids 6. They add variety and interest. Ask for a public commitment (think altar call) Moving an Audience to Action

Advantages of Using Presentation Aids 6. They add variety and interest. Make it easy for your audience to take the first step; people do not change easily Moving an Audience to Action

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