Presentation on theme: "VOCABULARY FOR PERSUASION. Ethical: dealing with morals, knowing what is right and wrong Logical: reasonable and makes sense Exaggeration: the act of."— Presentation transcript:
Ethical: dealing with morals, knowing what is right and wrong Logical: reasonable and makes sense Exaggeration: the act of overstating Testimonial: personal story Stereotype: grouping together based on personal experiences or opinions Scare tactics: persuasion by scaring Irrelevant: not important or applicable Fallacy: a misleading or false belief
EMOTIONAL/PATHOS FALLACIES Band Wagon appeal: everyone is doing it, so you should too. (peer pressure) Ex: 80% of Americans are Pro-Guns, so you should be too. Slippery Slope: Scare tactic that suggests if we allow one thing to happen, we will be heading down the slope to disaster. Ex: If we allow loggers to cut a few trees, we will soon lose all our forests. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aiCq1ZMOa-w Creating False Needs: creating a false sense of need where none exists or unreasonable heightening of an existing need. Ex: If parents want smart, successful children, they should let them hang out with J.J.
ETHICAL FALLACIES (ETHOS) Ad Hominem (to the man): directs attention away from the argument and to the person in order to discredit the person Ex: The lifestyle of a political candidate is addressed in the press, rather than the policy the candidate endorses. Guilty by Association: judging a person’s character by the character of their associates. Ex: Cassidy is thrown in jail along with some political protesters simply because she was in the wrong place at the wrong time. Using Authority Instead of Evidence: arguer relies on personal authority to prove a point rather than evidence. Ex: Buy this car because I am honest, trustworthy and I know your Eric.
LOGICAL FALLACIES Begging the Questions: a claim is simply restated without any support. Ex: Capital punishment deters crime because it keeps criminals from committing murder. Red Herring: irrelevant and misleading support that pulls the audience away from the real argument. Ex: T.J. should not be elected because he would have to put his kids in daycare. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=exdK7Lirngg&feature=related Non Sequitur: (it does not follow): the conclusion does not follow from the evidence and the warrant. Ex: Jesse should not be placed in an executive position because he does not drive cars as well as other men.
LOGICAL FALLACIES CONT. Straw Man: attributing an argument to an opponent that the opponent never made. Ex: A political candidate claims that his opponent has said that he is too old to do the job when the opponent has never mentioned age as an issue. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v5vzCmURh7o Stacked Evidence: representing only one side of an issue. Ex: TV is beneficial because it offers PBS, The Cosby Show and the news. (No mention of sex or violence)
LOGICAL FALLACIES CONT. Either-Or: oversimplification of a multi-position issue into a two sided issue. Ex: A woman can either be a mother or have a career. Post Hoc (after this, therefore because of this): faulty cause/effect Ex: You are more attractive because you drink coke. Hasty Generalization: basing a conclusion on too few examples. Ex: Because some students in urban school belong to gangs, most students in those schools belong to gangs.