Presentation on theme: "TODAY’S GOALS Learn advanced strategies for addressing counterarguments Finalize preparations for the class debate."— Presentation transcript:
TODAY’S GOALS Learn advanced strategies for addressing counterarguments Finalize preparations for the class debate
ADVANCED COUNTERARGUMENT STRATEGIES: INFORMAL FALLACIES Pg. 359 Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc: Strategy attacking evidence Latin for “after this, therefore because of this” When a counterargument claims that one thing has caused another, you can point out the many ways in which causation is difficult to prove and a suggested causation may only be correlation Relates back to the problems with proving causation we discussed in units 2 and 3 Hasty Generalizations: Strategy attacking evidence When an opponent generalizes information from a small study or small group to a larger one, point out how this information may not be applicable and how the larger group differs from the smaller one Only a couple differences are necessary to make a generalization break down You can also attack the use of generalizations, possibly linking them to other incorrect stereotypes (such as racial generalizations) for pathos
False Analogy Strategy attacking evidence When your opponents use examples and analogies between multiple things or situations, you can disprove their arguments by showing the ways in which those things are different (and thus their analogies do not apply) Only a couple exceptions are necessary to make an analogy break down Ad Hominem Latin for “against the person” If you cannot find fault with an argument, attack the credibility of the arguer instead Rather than attacking the argument or its evidence, this is a negative ethos appeal we discussed previously Be careful when using this in a debate since it also opens you up to such arguments
INFORMAL FALLACIES Either/or Reasoning Can be used when attacking an argument or its evidence When an opponent tries to boil down a complex issue into only two sides or two choices, point out the myriad of other possibilities to disprove their argument This is a common strategy when a thesis or argument is too strongly stated and you can present alternate solutions Appeals to False Authority Usually used against evidence (but not always) When an opponent supports their argument with the fact that “many people” or a famous person support it, point out that these people are not experts or authorities on the matter. Just because something is the most common view does not mean that it is right Similar to an ‘ad hominem’ strategy but here you are focusing on evidence rather than the primary arguer
INFORMAL FALLACIES Circular Reasoning Usually used against arguments When an opponent draws in or restates their main idea as part of the evidence to support it, illustrate this for readers to show the argument has no external evidence Slippery slope When your opponent implies that doing one action will lead to an inevitable series of events, point out the problems with causation and the many ways and times it can be stopped. Also related to the problems with proving causation we discussed in units 2 and 3 Offer alternate possibilities or pointing out the myriad of complicated variabels that could change the situation
GROUP ACTIVITY: ADVANCED COUNTERARGUMENT STRATEGIES In your unit 4 groups Read through the claims on page 353 and answer questions 1-3 Share the working versions of your theses for your classical argument essay and answer questions 4-5 4.Identify one solid counterargument to each student’s claim that could be addressed in the counterargument section of the student’s essay 5.Select a strategy we discussed in class to refute that counterargument
GROUP ACTIVITY: FINAL DEBATE PLANNING In your debate groups Share the sources you have found and brought in for use with the class debate 1.Aside from the student who brought in the article/source for their speaking point, what other speaking points could be strengthened from the source’s information? Who would use this information? 2.For each source and its primary associated speaking point, who is the alternate speaker who can present that point and the information from the corresponding source? 3.Make a final list of each group member, their speaking points, and at least 3 counterargument strategies your group will employ.
HOMEWORK Journal Entry 29 Focus: Counterarguments At this point in the development of your essay, it is time to start working out the second most complicated element of your classical argument essay: the counterarguments. First, take a few minutes to brainstorm what the main objections to your stance will be, trying to see the issue from multiple perspectives. You should think of the most common objections as well as any rhetorical weak points your argument may have. Next, consider how you can refute these counterarguments. Will you attack your opponent’s main idea or thesis? Or might the opponent’s evidence be a weaker point to debate? Are there any strong points your opponent may have to which you will have to concede? Why? Of the rhetorical strategies we have just discussed, which do you think will be the most helpful in refuting counterarguments?