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Fallacies What are they?. Definition There are over 100 fallacies They are illogical statements that demonstrate erroneous reasoning (sometimes intended-manipulation/

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Presentation on theme: "Fallacies What are they?. Definition There are over 100 fallacies They are illogical statements that demonstrate erroneous reasoning (sometimes intended-manipulation/"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fallacies What are they?

2 Definition There are over 100 fallacies They are illogical statements that demonstrate erroneous reasoning (sometimes intended-manipulation/ or not intended) They’re generally hurtful and distract from the argument Be careful because the fallacy is sometimes very subtle

3 Fallacies QA Hasty Generalization: drawing a conclusion from insufficient evidence Either/Or: creates the false dilemma (binary) by limiting the choice to 2 alternatives when there are more options False Authority (Appeal to an Expert): citing irrelevant information of an expert who isn’t an expert on the issue/subject

4 Fallacies contd. False Analogy: comparing two disparate things when the comparison is invalid. False Cause: claims that one event leads to another (but the events are unrelated) Slipper Slope: arguments that suggest an event will precipitate the domino effect- ending in inevitable disaster.

5 Fallacies contd. Ad Hominem: attacking your opponent- their appearance, personal habits or character instead of dealing with the validity of the argument Red Herring: fallacy of distraction which brings up unrelated/irrelevant issues to distract people from the truth.

6 Fallacies contd. Bandwagon (Appeal to Popularity): basing an argument on a popular belief and using this as proof that it’s valid. Non Sequitur (Irrelevant argument): means “it does not follow”. The conclusion doesn’t follow the premise.

7 Fallacies contd. Begging the Question or (Circular Reasoning): the supporting reasons restate the claim. The argument paraphrases the same idea w/out evidence.

8 Fallacies contd. Death by a 1000 Qualifications: making a statement that might be true but using so many qualifiers that it becomes insignificant. Many Questions: asking questions that subtly attacks opponent

9 Fallacies contd. Oversimplification: using absolute statements that might not be relevant-or presenting overly simplistic explanations when the issues is infinitely complex

10 Fallacies contd. Appeal to Ignorance: basing an argument on the lack of evidence. Have to present negative evidence to ‘prove’ something. Appeal to Tradition: basing an argument on tradition

11 Fallacies contd. Protecting the Hypothesis: manipulating/mischaracterizing data to prove a point Fallacy of Omission: conveniently leaving out relevant information that would weaken argument

12 Fallacies contd. Emotional Appeals: inciting fear, tradition, or pity to manipulate audience’s emotions rather than their reasoning Equivocation/Slanted Language: biasing the reader by using word choices that have multiple connotations to manipulate your point.

13 Fallacies contd. Straw Man: using the ‘weakest’ points of opponents argument to mischaracterize their position


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