Presentation on theme: "Fallacies Learning Targets: I can identify logical fallacies when they are committed. I can recognize why reasoning is fallacious. I can avoid logical."— Presentation transcript:
Fallacies Learning Targets: I can identify logical fallacies when they are committed. I can recognize why reasoning is fallacious. I can avoid logical fallacies in my own writing and debating.
Scare Tactics Arguments that use legitimate fears to incite panic or prejudice. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded &v=5zWB4dLYChM
Either-Or Choices/False Dilemma/Bifurcation Arguments that reduce the options for action to only two choices. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded &v=7gw8WuATIRY
Slippery Slope Arguments that exaggerate the likely consequences of an action, usually to frighten readers/listeners. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=5v -JuG6YMqI https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=7 4eDQ1a5G8k
Sentimental Appeals Arguments that use tender emotions excessively to distract readers from facts. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=A MpZ0TGjbWE https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=x wndLOKQTDs
Bandwagon Appeal Arguments that urge people to follow the same path everyone else is taking. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded &v=MEGUDMgaVfM
Appeals to False Authority Arguments that draw on the authority of widely respected people, institutions, and texts. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded &v=9_YneSM0ItA
Dogmatism Implies that there is only one side to an argument. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JI WETHeK46M https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JI WETHeK46M
Ad Hominem Arguments attack the character of a person rather than the claim made.
Hasty Generalization An argument that draws inference from insufficient evidence. Stereotypes often arise from this fallacy. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pem_FwggPsM
Faulty Causality/Post Hoc An argument that assumes that because one event or action follows another, the first necessarily causes the second. http://youtu.be/eVgT-vZLK6Q
Red Herring An argument in which an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D6VmYOFGpbM
Begging the Question A form of circular reasoning, divorced from reality. An assumption that the conclusion is true, even if the premises do not offer evidence of that conclusion. Example: Santa Claus http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CVbku6nxhU &feature=em-share_video_user
Non Sequitur An argument in which claims, reasons, or warrants fail to connect logically; one point does not follow from another. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=t68MYE Xwsk0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=jBjBFSB Ldp0
Faulty/False Analogy An inaccurate or inconsequential comparison between objects or concepts; elaborate comparison of two things which are two dissimilar. Example: Making people register their own guns is like the Nazis making the Jews register with their government. This policy is crazy. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-Oh-xZskRM *Swiss Army knife of cameras
Equivocation An argument that gives a lie an honest appearance; a half-truth.
The Straw Man Chooses to refute arguments that go beyond the opposition’s claims; when a person simply ignores a person’s actual position and substitutes a distorted, exaggerated, or misrepresented version of that position. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RrN5AHUKx- w&feature=em-share_video_user
Stacking the Deck Promoting arguments that favor only one side while rejecting or avoiding arguments for another point of view, especially arguments we don’t want to deal with. Example: 4 out of 5 dentists…
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