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Overview Overview, history, and purpose of AIMSweb and Curriculum-Based Measurement AIMSweb and RTI Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation –Oral.

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Presentation on theme: "Overview Overview, history, and purpose of AIMSweb and Curriculum-Based Measurement AIMSweb and RTI Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation –Oral."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Overview Overview, history, and purpose of AIMSweb and Curriculum-Based Measurement AIMSweb and RTI Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation –Oral Reading Fluency –MAZE Materials Data System

3 Overview of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and AIMSweb® Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Michelle M. Shinn, Ph.D. Lisa A. Langell, M.A., S.Psy.S.

4 Evaluations to Inform Teaching Summative & Formative Assessment Summative Assessment Summative Assessment: Culmination measure. Mastery assessment. Assessment after instruction. Pass/fail type assessments which summarize the knowledge students learn. Typical summative assessments include: End of chapter tests High-stakes tests (e.g., State assessments) GRE, ACT, SAT, GMAT, etc. tests Drivers license test Final Exams. Formative Assessment: Formative Assessment: Process of assessing student achievement frequently during instruction to determine whether an instructional program is effective for individual students. Informs: When students are progressing, continue using your instructional programs. When tests show that students are not progressing, you can change your instructional programs in meaningful ways.

5 Summative Assessment of Summative Assessment: Characterized as assessment of learning. Formative Assessment for Formative Assessment: Characterized as assessment for learning. ( Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summative_assessment) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summative_assessment Summative assessment ed Formative assessment ing Summative assessment tells you what happened. Formative assessment tells you whats happening. Summative & Formative Assessment

6 Evaluations to Inform Teaching Diagnostic Assessment Diagnostic Assessments: Diagnostic Assessments: Measures that indicate specific skill strengths and those areas needing improvement. Results may indicate skill areas needing intervention/instruction. Programming may then address students needs. Examples: Criterion-referenced assessments Cognitive assessments Rating scales Norm-referenced, standardized assessments Tests may be based on the assessment of cognitive skills, academic skills, behavior, health, social-emotional wellbeing, etc.

7 So, Where Does Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) fit? Summative? Formative? Diagnostic?

8 What is Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)? formof Curriculum-Based AssessmentCBM is a form of Curriculum-Based Assessment (CBA). method of monitoring student progressCBM is the method of monitoring student progress through direct, continuous assessment of basic skills. CBM is used to assess skills such reading, spelling, mathematics, and written language. require about 1 to 4 minutesCBM probes require about 1 to 4 minutes to complete, depending on the skill being measured. determine proficiencyStudent performance is scored for speed and accuracy to determine proficiency. given frequently to provide continuous progress dataBecause CBM probes are quick to administer and simple to score, they can be given frequently to provide continuous progress data. charted to provide for timely evaluationThe results are charted to provide for timely evaluation based on hard data.

9 Origins of CBM CBM University of Minnesota Institute for Research on Learning Disabilities CBM was initially developed more than 20 years ago by Stanley Deno and others at the University of Minnesota Institute for Research on Learning Disabilities to develop a reliable and valid measurement system for evaluating basic skills growth 30 years of school-based research CBM is supported by 30 years of school-based research United States Department of Education CBM is endorsed by the United States Department of Education as a method for assessing student progress. literacy, mathematics, and written language Starting in the area of reading, researchers have expanded to investigate additional academic areas over the years. This includes in-depth research and ultimately the publication of additional measures in literacy, mathematics, and written language 100s of articles, chapters, and books available within the professional literature Supporting documentation can be found in 100s of articles, chapters, and books available within the professional literature describing the use of CBM to make a variety of important educational decisions

10 Advantages of CBM DirectmeasureDirect measure of student performance Deno, S.L. (1985). Curriculum-based measurement: the emerging alternative. Exceptional Children. 52(3):219-32. best practicesCorrelates strongly with best practices for instruction and assessment research-supported methods assessment and interventionCorrelates strongly with research-supported methods for assessment and intervention Focusrepeated measures of performanceFocus is on repeated measures of performance (This cannot be done with most norm-referenced and standardized tests due to practice effect or limited forms.)

11 Common Characteristics of General Outcome Measures CBM involves the same kind of evaluation technology as other professions. Powerful Powerful measures that are: Simple Simple Accurate Accurate Efficient decisions Efficient indicators of performance that guide and inform a variety of decisions Generalizable thermometer that allows for reliable, valid, cross comparisons of data Generalizable thermometer that allows for reliable, valid, cross comparisons of data

12 General Outcome Measures (GOMs) from Other Fields Medicine measures height, weight, temperature, and/or blood pressure. Department of Labor measures the Consumer Price Index. Wall Street measures the Dow-Jones Industrial Average. Companies report earnings per share. McDonalds ® measures how many hamburgers they sell.

13 CBM is Used for Scientific Reasons Based on Evidence Reliablevalid Reliable and valid indicator of student achievement Simple, efficientshort Simple, efficient, and of short duration to facilitate frequent administration by teachers helps teachers plan better instruction Provides assessment information that helps teachers plan better instruction Sensitive to improvement Sensitive to improvement of students achievement over time Easily understood Easily understood by teachers and parents Improves achievement Improves achievement when used to monitor progress

14 Three-Tiered Assessment Model Tier 1: BENCHMARK BENCHMARK Universal Screening for all students STRATEGIC MONITOR Tier 2: STRATEGIC MONITOR Monthly monitoring for students who are mild to moderate risk for failure PROGRESS MONITOR Tier 3: PROGRESS MONITOR Intensive monitoring towards specific goals for students at significant risk for failure 1 2 3

15 Measures Currently Available via AIMSweb®: Early Literacy [K-1 benchmark, Progress Monitor (PM) any age] –Letter Naming Fluency –Letter sound fluency –Phonemic Segmentation Fluency –Nonsense Word Fluency Early Numeracy (K-1 benchmark, PM any age) –Oral Counting –Number identification –Quantity discrimination –Missing number Oral Reading (K-8, PM any age) MAZE (Reading comprehension); (1-8, PM any age) Math Computation (1-6, PM any age) Math Facts (PM any age) Spelling (1-8, PM any age) Written Expression (1-8, PM any age) All students in an academic curriculum arebenchmarked three times per year across any/all of these assessment areas.

16 Administration and Scoring of READING-CURRICULUM-BASED MEASUREMENT (R-CBM) for Use in General Outcome Measurement Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Michelle M. Shinn, Ph.D.

17 Reading - Curriculum-Based Measurement (R-CBM) Edformations Standard Reading Assessment Passages Students read aloud for 1 minute from Edformations Standard Reading Assessment Passages of meaningful, connected text. Number of words read correct and number of errors are counted. Reported as WRC/errors

18 Benefits of Using Edformations Standard Reading Assessment Passages generalcurriculum curriculum independent. Are written to represent general curriculum or be curriculum independent. Allow decision making Allow decision making about reading growth, regardless of between- school, between-school-district, between-teacher differences in reading curriculum. gradedequal Are graded to be of equal difficulty. alternate forms Have numerous alternate forms for testing over time without practice effects.

19 Administration and Scoring of R-CBM What Examiners Need To Do… Before Before Testing students While While Testing students After After Testing students

20 Things you Need Before Testing 1. Standard Reading Assessment Passage Student Copy: No numbers Between 250-300 words (exception: 1st grade) An informative first sentence Same font style and size Text without pictures Obtain from your LAM

21 Things you Need Before Testing 2. Standard Reading Assessment Passage Examiner Copy: Pre-numbered so they can be scored quickly and immediately. Obtain from your LAM.

22 3. Tier 1 (Benchmark) R-CBM Probes: FALL (Sept): Grade 3 P01: It rained all day. P02: Billy was sitting. P03: Mama frog carried. WINTER (Jan): Grade 3 P01: It rained all day. P02: Billy was sitting. P03: Mama frog carried. SPRING (May): Grade 3 P01: It rained all day. P02: Billy was sitting. P03: Mama frog carried. EXAMPLE 1.AIMSweb Manager provides staff with copies of three grade- level probes (teacher and student copies). 2.FALL (Sept.): Staff administer three, grade-level probes to each student. Report median score. 3.WINTER (Jan.): Repeat administration of same three probes to each student. Report median score. 4.SPRING (May): Repeat administration of same three probes to each student. Report median score.

23 4. Additional Assessment Aids Needed Before Testing A list of students to be assessed Stop Watch (requireddigital preferred) Clipboard Pencil Transparencies or paper copies of examiner passages Dry Marker or Pencil Wipe Cloth (for transparencies only)

24 Setting up Assessment Environment Assessment environments are flexible and could include… A set-aside place in the classroom Reading station in the hall way Reading stations in the media center, cafeteria, gym, or empty classrooms Computer lab, weight room, principals office, storage closet, or wherever theres a quiet space

25 Things You Need to do While Testing Follow the standardized directions: R-CBM is a standardized test Administer the assessment with consistency Remember its about testing, not teaching Dont teach or correct Dont practice reading the passages Remember best, not fastest reading Sit across from, not beside student

26 R-CBM Standard Directions for 1 Minute Administration unnumbered 1)Place the unnumbered copy in front of the student. numbered 2)Place the numbered copy in front of you, but shielded so the student cannot see what you record. 3)Say: When I say Begin, start reading aloud at the top of this page. Read across the page Try to read each word. If you come to a word you dont know, I will tell it to you. Be sure to do your best reading. Are there any questions? When I say Begin, start reading aloud at the top of this page. Read across the page (DEMONSTRATE BY POINTING). Try to read each word. If you come to a word you dont know, I will tell it to you. Be sure to do your best reading. Are there any questions? (PAUSE) Begin 4)Say Begin and start your stopwatch when the student says the first word. If the student fails to say the first word of the passage after 3 seconds, tell them the word, mark it as incorrect, then start your stopwatch. 5)Follow along on your copy. Put a slash ( / ) through words read incorrectly. Stop. 6)At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket ( ] ) after the last word and say, Stop. 7) Score and summarize by writing WRC/Errors

27 Familiar Shortened Directions When students are assessed frequently and know the directions. Say: When I say Begin, start reading aloud at the top of this page.

28 Things to do After Testing Score immediately! Determine WRC. Put a slash (/) through incorrect words. If doing multiple samples, organize your impressions of qualitative features.

29 What is a Word Read Correctly? Correctly pronounced Correctly pronounced words within context. Self-corrected incorrect Self-corrected incorrect words within 3 seconds.

30 What is an Error? Mispronunciation Mispronunciation of the wordSubstitutionsOmissions 3-Second 3-Second pauses or struggles (examiner provides correct word)

31 What is not Incorrect? (Neither a WRC or an Error) Repetitions Dialect d Dialect differences Insertions Insertions (consider them qualitative errors)

32 Example Juan finished reading after 1 minute at the 145th word, so he read 145 words total. Juan also made 3 errors. Therefore his WRC was 142 with 3 errors. Reported as: 142/3.

33 R-CBM Activity: Tallying Scores & Calculating Median

34 67 / 2 85 / 8 74 / 9 1 min. 1 min. 1 min. 1 min. 1 min. 1 min. Why use Median vs. Average? Averages are susceptible to outliers when dealing with small number sets. Median Score is a statistically more reliable number than average for R-CBM. Data: Get the MEDIAN score for students 3 passages: CORRECT WORDS

35 67 / 2 85 / 8 74 / 9 1 min. 1 min. 1 min. 1 min. 1 min. 1 min. Why use Median vs. Average? Averages are susceptible to outliers when dealing with small number sets. Median Score is a statistically more reliable number than average for R-CBM. Data: Get the MEDIAN score for students 3 passages: ERRORS MEDIAN SCORE: 74/8 (Report in AIMSweb®) NOTE: R-CBM is the only measure for which the median score is calculated.

36 BENCHMARK DATA ACTIVITY Go to P. 2 of your trainee manual Calculate the Median Score for Hannah Berg WRC = Words Read Correct ERRORS = Number of Errors WRC/Errors Example: 64/2

37 (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)

38 54 2 (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)

39 Practice Exercise 1: Lets Score – P. 3 in trainee manual

40 Practice Exercise 1: Lets Score This student read 73 WRC/7 Errors

41 Practice Exercise 2: Lets Score – P. 3 in trainee manual

42 Practice Exercise 4: Lets Score This student read 86 WRC/5 Errors

43 Paired Practice – Oral Reading Fluency – P. 4 Trainee Manual P. 4 in Trainee Booklet First time: partner #1 answers, partner #2 scores Second time: partner #2 answers, partner #1 scores

44 Administration and Scoring of READING-MAZE (R-MAZE) for Use in General Outcome Measurement Power Point Authored by Jillyan Kennedy Based on Administration and Scoring of Reading R-MAZE for Use with AIMSweb Training Workbook By Michelle M. Shinn, Ph.D. Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D

45 R-MAZE is Used for Scientific Reasons Based on Evidence It is a reliable and valid indicator of student achievement. It is a reliable and valid indicator of student achievement. It is simple, efficient, and of short duration to facilitate frequent administration by teachers. It is simple, efficient, and of short duration to facilitate frequent administration by teachers. It provides assessment information that helps teachers plan better instruction. It provides assessment information that helps teachers plan better instruction. It is sensitive to the improvement of students achievement over time. It is sensitive to the improvement of students achievement over time. It is easily understood by teachers and parents. It is easily understood by teachers and parents. Improves achievement when used to monitor progress. Improves achievement when used to monitor progress.

46 Curriculum Based Measurement Reading R-MAZE AreaTimingTest ArrangementsWhat is Scored? CBM R-MAZE Reading 3 minutes Individual, Small Group, or Classroom Group # of Correct Answers CBM R-MAZE is designed to provide educators a more complete picture of students reading skills, especially when comprehension problems are suspected.

47 Curriculum Based Measurement Reading R-MAZE (Continued) R-MAZE is a multiple-choice cloze task that students complete while reading silently. R-MAZE is a multiple-choice cloze task that students complete while reading silently. The students are presented with 150-400 word passages. The students are presented with 150-400 word passages. The first sentence is left intact. The first sentence is left intact. After the first sentence, every 7th word is replaced with three word choices inside a parenthesis. After the first sentence, every 7th word is replaced with three word choices inside a parenthesis. The three choices consist of: The three choices consist of: 1)Near Distracter 2)Exact Match 3)Far Distracter

48 Sample Grade 4 R-MAZE Passage

49 Examples of R-MAZE

50 Administration and Scoring of CBM R-MAZE What examiners need to do... Before testing students Before testing students While testing students While testing students After testing students After testing students

51 Items Students Need Before Testing What the students need for testing: CBM R-MAZE practice test CBM R-MAZE practice test Appropriate CBM R-MAZE passages Appropriate CBM R-MAZE passages Pencils Pencils

52 Items Administrators Need Before Testing What the tester uses for testing: Stopwatch Stopwatch Appropriate CBM R-MAZE answer key Appropriate CBM R-MAZE answer key Appropriate standardized directions Appropriate standardized directions List of students to be tested. List of students to be tested.

53 Things You Need to do While Testing Attach a cover sheet that includes the practice test so that students do not begin the test right away. Attach a cover sheet that includes the practice test so that students do not begin the test right away. Do a simple practice test with younger students. Do a simple practice test with younger students. Monitor to ensure students are circling answers instead of writing them. Monitor to ensure students are circling answers instead of writing them. Be prepared to Prorate for students who may finish early. Be prepared to Prorate for students who may finish early. Try to avoid answering student questions. Try to avoid answering student questions. Adhere to the end of timing. Adhere to the end of timing. Follow the standardized directions: Follow the standardized directions:

54 CBM R-MAZE Standard Directions 1)Pass R-MAZE tasks out to students. Have students write their names on the cover sheet, so they do not start early. Make sure they do not turn the page until you tell them to. 2)Say this to the student (s): When I say Begin I want you to silently read a story. You will have 3 minutes to read the story and complete the task. Listen carefully to the directions. Some of the words in the story are replaced with a group of 3 words. Your job is to circle the 1 word that makes the most sense in the story. Only 1 word is correct. 3)Decide if a practice test is needed. Say... Lets practice one together. Look at your first page. Read the first sentence silently while I read it out loud: The dog, apple, broke, ran after the cat. The three choices are apple, broke, ran. The dog apple after the cat. That sentence does not make sense. The dog broke after the cat. That sentence does not make sense. The dog ran after the cat. That sentence does make sense, so circle the word ran. (Make sure the students circle the word ran.)

55 CBM R-MAZE Standard Directions (Continued) Lets go to the next sentence. Read it silently while I read it out loud. The cat ran fast, green, for up the hill. The three choices are fast, green, for up the hill. Which word is the correct word for the sentence? (The students answer fast) Yes, The cat ran fast up the hill is correct, so circle the correct word fast. (Make sure students circle fast) Silently read the next sentence and raise your hand when you think you know the answer. (Make sure students know the correct word. Read the sentence with the correct answer) Thats right. The dog barked at the cat is correct. Now what do you do when you choose the correct word? (Students answer Circle it. Make sure the students understand the task) Thats correct, you circle it. I think youre ready to work on a story on your own.

56 CBM R-MAZE Standard Directions (Continued) 4)Start the testing by saying... When I say Begin turn to the first story and start reading silently. When you come to a group of three words, circle the 1 word that makes the most sense. Work as quickly as you can without making mistakes. If you finish a/ the page/first side, turn the page and keep working until I say Stop or you are all done. Do you have any questions? 5)Then say, Begin. Start your stopwatch. 6)Monitor students to make sure they understand that they are to circle only 1 word. 7)If a student finished before the time limit, collect the students R-MAZE task and record the time on the students test booklet. 8)At the end of 3 minutes say: Stop. Put your pencils down. Please close your booklet. 9)Collect the R-MAZE tasks.

57 CBM R-MAZE Familiar Directions 1)After the students have put their names on the cover sheer, start the testing by saying... When I say Begin turn to the first story and start reading silently. When you come to a group of three words, circle the 1 word that makes the most sense. Work as quickly as you can without making mistakes. If you finish a/ the page/first side, turn the page and keep working until I say Stop or you are all done. Do you have any questions? 2)Then say, Begin. Start your stopwatch. 3)Monitor students to make sure they understand that they are to circle only 1 word. 4)If a student finished before the time limit, collect the students R-MAZE task and record the time on the students test booklet. 5)At the end of 3 minutes say: Stop. Put your pencils down. Please close your booklet. 6)Collect the R-MAZE tasks.

58 Things to Do After Testing Score immediately to ensure accurate results! Score immediately to ensure accurate results! Determine the number of words (items) correct. Determine the number of words (items) correct. Use the answer key and put a slash (/) through incorrect words. Use the answer key and put a slash (/) through incorrect words.

59 CBM R-MAZE Scoring What is correct? The students circles the word that matches the correct word on the scoring template. What is incorrect? An answer is considered an error if the student: 1)Circles an incorrect word 2)Omits word selections other than those the student was unable to complete before the 3 minutes expired

60 Making Scoring Efficient 1)Count the total number of items up to the last circled word. 2)Compare the student answers to the correct answers on the scoring template. Mark a slash [/] through incorrect responses. 3)Subtract the number of incorrect answers from the total number of items attempted. 4)Record the total number of correct answers on the cover sheet followed by the total number of errors (e.g., 35/2).

61 Paired Practice : Lets Score – Trainee Manual P. 5 P. 5 in Trainee Booklet First time: partner #1 answers, partner #2 gives full directions (P. 18) and administers passage on P. 22 Second time: partner #2 answers, partner #1 gives abbreviated directions (P. 20)

62 Accessing Your Materials Two options: - Print materials online - Pull materials from folder at school and make copies

63 Accessing Materials Online

64 So

65

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67 Accessing the Materials Folder Your school will have one Benchmark package and one Progress Monitoring Package Benchmarking Package contains: Student Materials Folder for each grade level Contains the materials the student will have in front of them when testing for each grade level (make one copy of each MAZE passage for each student because they will be writing on them) Teacher Materials Folder for each grade level Contains scoring booklet for each grade level (make one copy per student in your class) Contains administration and scoring manual for each measure Contains MAZE answer key for benchmark passages (Grades 3-8) Progress Monitoring Package contains: One copy of each progress monitoring probe and answer key at each grade level

68 Distribution of Materials and Collection of Data Make a plan of action: Who will distribute materials (i.e., scoring booklets, student probes) at your school during benchmarking? Will each teacher print/copy their own materials? Or will one person distribute the materials to all the teachers? When will your school begin benchmarking (a two-week window recommended as the maximum time for each benchmarking period)? Where will testing take place? What logistical barriers to testing exist and how will those be handled?

69 Once data are collected, it is easily entered into AIMSweb®s web-based software. Simply type in the scores! (pictured at left) Dozens of reports are then instantly available. (Estimated time: 3-5 minutes.) Easy Score Entry (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)

70 AIMSweb as a Program Evaluation Tool: Benchmark 3x/year for Universal ScreeningAll Kids (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)

71 Michael Martin: Michael Martin: A student with Benchmark Data that indicates he is performing significantly behind peers at his school.

72 Fall Benchmark Data for Michael Martin Martin, Michael: Grade 5 (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)

73 Box & Whiskers Graphs (box plots): A 3-Step Explanation AIMSweb commonly uses box plots to report data. AIMSwebs Box plots are somewhat similar in shape and representation as to a vertical bell curve. 75 th percentile Median (50 th percentile) 25 th percentile 90 th percentile 10 th percentile Above 90 th percentile Average range of population included in sample. Below Average Range Above Average Range Below 10 th percentile Michael Martin Target Line * * * * * * * *In relation to user-defined comparison group 1 3 2 Average Range (middle 50%)

74 Discussion : Consider Michaels R-CBM performance in relationship to different AIMSweb® Comparison Groups Michaels School Grade 5: Michaels School Michaels District Grade 5: Michaels District National Aggregate Norms Grade 5: National Aggregate Norms (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)

75 Michael appears to be performing below expectations when compared to all three comparison groups. Michaels School Grade 5: Michaels School Michaels District Grade 5: Michaels District National Aggregate Norms Grade 5: National Aggregate Norms (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.) Consider modifying instructional program(s) Consider increasing frequency of assessment to assess efficacy of alternate program(s) Review data regularly to assess progress

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77 AIMSweb National Aggregate Norm Table

78 AIMSweb Aggregate Norm Table

79 An Introductory Look at Additional Benchmark Data

80 3 rd Grade Student Individual Report: 3 rd Grade Student QUESTIONS: What does report suggest about Vivianas progress? What does report suggest about the schools progress for its 3 rd grade students? What if you saw this pattern in only one schools 3 rd grade within your district? What if you saw this pattern across most or all 3 rd grade groups in your district?

81 Things Went Well Data to Know that Things Went Well QUESTIONS: What does report suggest about Heather As progress? SPRING SPRING: Compared to Grade 3 peers at her school, is Heather performing in the: - Well Above Average Range? - Above Average Range? - Average Range? - Below Average Range? - Well-Below Average Range?

82 ThingsNeed Changing Have Data to Know When Things Need Changing QUESTIONS: What are possible reasons why U. Boardman might not be making progress? What might happen if nothing is done to address U. Boardmans needs? Without this type of visual data, collected at each Benchmark period, do you believe U. Boardmans stagnation would have been quickly noticed otherwise?

83 ChangesMade a Difference Data to Know that Changes Made a Difference

84 Tier 2: Strategic Monitor Strategic Monitor: Strategic Monitor: (1x/month) Provides option to increase assessment frequency from three times per year to once per month for select students. (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.) Example of Strategic Monitor report containing monthly data collected over a full school year

85 Strategic Monitoring: October (Lindsey Hunter) (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)

86 Intensive monitoring of individualized goals for students at-risk of failure TIER 3: Progress Monitor 3 3

87 Progress Monitor (Tier 3): Intensive assessment with adjustable frequency that matches need (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.) 3

88 Benchmark (Tier 1): 3x per year Strategic Monitoring (Tier 2): 1x per month for select students at risk for educational difficulties Progress Monitor (Tier 3): Intensive assessment with adjustable frequency that matches need (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)

89 Compare a School to a Composite

90 Many More Reporting Options Available

91 The End


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