Presentation on theme: "Overview Overview, history, and purpose of AIMSweb and Curriculum-Based Measurement AIMSweb and RTI Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation Oral Reading."— Presentation transcript:
1 [Plan for 60-90 minutes. Fantastic presentation for explaining how to read charts.]
2 OverviewOverview, history, and purpose of AIMSweb and Curriculum-Based MeasurementAIMSweb and RTIAdministration, Scoring, and InterpretationOral Reading FluencyMAZEMaterialsData System
3 Overview of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and AIMSweb® Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D.Michelle M. Shinn, Ph.D.Lisa A. Langell, M.A., S.Psy.S.
4 Evaluations to Inform Teaching— Summative & Formative Assessment Summative Assessment: Culmination measure. Mastery assessment. Assessment after instruction. Pass/fail type assessments which summarize the knowledge students learn. Typical summative assessments include:End of chapter testsHigh-stakes tests (e.g., State assessments)GRE, ACT, SAT, GMAT, etc. testsDriver’s license testFinal Exams.Formative Assessment: Process of assessing student achievement frequently during instruction to determine whether an instructional program is effective for individual students.Informs:When students are progressing, continue using your instructional programs.When tests show that students are not progressing, you can changeyour instructional programs in meaningful ways.
5 Summative & Formative Assessment Summative Assessment: Characterized as assessment of learning.Formative Assessment: Characterized as assessment for learning. (Citation:Summative assessment tells you what happened Formative assessment tells you what’s happening.
6 Evaluations to Inform Teaching— Diagnostic Assessment Diagnostic Assessments: Measures that indicate specific skill strengths and those areas needing improvement. Results may indicate skill areas needing intervention/instruction. Programming may then address students’ needs. Examples:Criterion-referenced assessmentsCognitive assessmentsRating scalesNorm-referenced, standardized assessmentsTests may be based on the assessment of cognitive skills, academic skills, behavior, health, social-emotional wellbeing, etc.
7 So, Where Does Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) fit? Summative?Formative?Diagnostic?
8 What is Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)? CBM is a form of Curriculum-Based Assessment (CBA).CBM is the method of monitoring student progress through direct, continuous assessment of basic skills.CBM is used to assess skills such reading, spelling, mathematics, and written language.CBM probes require about 1 to 4 minutes to complete, depending on the skill being measured.Student performance is scored for speed and accuracy to determine proficiency.Because CBM probes are quick to administer and simple to score, they can be given frequently to provide continuous progress data.The results are charted to provide for timely evaluation based on hard data.
9 Origins of CBMCBM was initially developed more than 20 years ago by Stanley Deno and others at the University of Minnesota Institute for Research on Learning Disabilities to develop a reliable and valid measurement system for evaluating basic skills growthCBM is supported by 30 years of school-based researchCBM is endorsed by the United States Department of Education as a method for assessing student progress.Starting in the area of reading, researchers have expanded to investigate additional academic areas over the years. This includes in-depth research and ultimately the publication of additional measures in literacy, mathematics, and written languageSupporting documentation can be found in 100’s of articles, chapters, and books available within the professional literature describing the use of CBM to make a variety of important educational decisions
10 Advantages of CBMDirect measure of student performance Deno, S.L. (1985). Curriculum-based measurement: the emerging alternative. Exceptional Children. 52(3):Correlates strongly with “best practices” for instruction and assessmentCorrelates strongly with research-supported methods for assessment and interventionFocus is on repeated measures of performance (This cannot be done with most norm-referenced and standardized tests due to practice effect or limited forms.)
11 Common Characteristics of General Outcome Measures CBM involves the same kind of evaluation technology as other professions.Powerful measures that are:SimpleAccurateEfficient indicators of performance that guide and inform a variety of decisionsGeneralizable thermometer that allows for reliable, valid, cross comparisons of data
12 General Outcome Measures (GOMs) from Other Fields Medicine measures height, weight, temperature, and/or blood pressure.Department of Labor measures the Consumer Price Index.Wall Street measures the Dow-Jones Industrial Average.Companies report earnings per share.McDonald’s® measures how many hamburgers they sell.
13 CBM is Used for Scientific Reasons Based on Evidence Reliable and valid indicator of student achievementSimple, efficient, and of short duration to facilitate frequent administration by teachersProvides assessment information that helps teachers plan better instructionSensitive to improvement of students’ achievement over timeEasily understood by teachers and parentsImproves achievement when used to monitor progress
14 Three-Tiered Assessment Model Tier 3: PROGRESS MONITOR Intensive monitoring towards specific goals for students at significant risk for failure123Tier 2: STRATEGIC MONITOR Monthly monitoring for students who are mild to moderate risk for failureTier 1:BENCHMARK Universal Screening for all students
15 Measures Currently Available via AIMSweb®: Early Literacy [K-1 benchmark, Progress Monitor (PM) any age]Letter Naming FluencyLetter sound fluencyPhonemic Segmentation FluencyNonsense Word FluencyEarly Numeracy (K-1 benchmark, PM any age)Oral CountingNumber identificationQuantity discriminationMissing numberOral Reading (K-8, PM any age)MAZE (Reading comprehension); (1-8, PM any age)Math Computation (1-6, PM any age)Math Facts (PM any age)Spelling (1-8, PM any age)Written Expression (1-8, PM any age)All students in an academic curriculum are “benchmarked” three times per year across any/all of these assessment areas.
16 Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Michelle M. Shinn, Ph.D. Administration and Scoring of READING-CURRICULUM-BASED MEASUREMENT (R-CBM) for Use in General Outcome MeasurementMark R. Shinn, Ph.D.Michelle M. Shinn, Ph.D.
17 Reading - Curriculum-Based Measurement (R-CBM) Students read aloud for 1 minute from Edformation’s Standard Reading Assessment Passages of meaningful, connected text.Number of words read correct and number of errors are counted.Reported as WRC/errors
18 Benefits of Using Edformation’s Standard Reading Assessment Passages Are written to represent general curriculum or be “curriculum independent.”Allow decision making about reading growth, regardless of between- school, between-school-district, between-teacher differences in reading curriculum.Are graded to be of equal difficulty.Have numerous alternate forms for testing over time without practice effects.
19 Administration and Scoring of R-CBM What Examiners Need To Do…Before Testing studentsWhile Testing studentsAfter Testing students
20 Things you Need Before Testing 1. Standard Reading Assessment Passage Student Copy:No numbersBetween words (exception: 1st grade)An informative first sentenceSame font style and sizeText without picturesObtain from your LAM
21 Things you Need Before Testing 2. Standard Reading Assessment Passage Examiner Copy:Pre-numbered so they can be scored quickly and immediately.Obtain from your LAM.The numbered copy is going to be in front of you and allows you to score quickly and easily.
22 3. Tier 1 (Benchmark) R-CBM Probes: AIMSweb Manager provides staff with copies of three grade-level probes (teacher and student copies).FALL (Sept.): Staff administer three, grade-level probes to each student. Report median score.WINTER (Jan.): Repeat administration of same three probes to each student. Report median score.SPRING (May): Repeat administration of same three probes to each student. Report median score.FALL (Sept): Grade 3P01: It rained all day.P02: Billy was sitting.P03: Mama frog carried.EXAMPLWINTER (Jan): Grade 3P01: It rained all day.P02: Billy was sitting.P03: Mama frog carried.SPRING (May): Grade 3P01: It rained all day.P02: Billy was sitting.P03: Mama frog carried.
23 4. Additional Assessment Aids Needed Before Testing A list of students to be assessedStop Watch (required—digital preferred)ClipboardPencil Transparencies or paper copies of examiner passagesDry Marker or PencilWipe Cloth (for transparencies only)
24 Setting up Assessment Environment Assessment environments are flexible and could include…A set-aside place in the classroomReading station in the hall wayReading stations in the media center, cafeteria, gym, or empty classroomsComputer lab, weight room, principal’s office, storage closet, or wherever there’s a quiet space
25 Things You Need to do While Testing Follow the standardized directions:R-CBM is a standardized testAdminister the assessment with consistencyRemember it’s about testing, not teachingDon’t teach or correctDon’t practice reading the passagesRemember best, not fastest readingSit across from, not beside student
26 R-CBM Standard Directions for 1 Minute Administration Place the unnumbered copy in front of the student.Place the numbered copy in front of you, but shielded so the student cannot see what you record.Say:When I say ‘Begin,’ start reading aloud at the top of this page. Read across the page (DEMONSTRATE BY POINTING). Try to read each word. If you come to a word you don’t know, I will tell it to you. Be sure to do your best reading. Are there any questions? (PAUSE)Say “Begin” and start your stopwatch when the student says the first word. If the student fails to say the first word of the passage after 3 seconds, tell them the word, mark it as incorrect, then start your stopwatch.Follow along on your copy. Put a slash ( / ) through words read incorrectly.At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket ( ] ) after the last word and say, “Stop.”Score and summarize by writing WRC/Errors
27 “Familiar” Shortened Directions When students are assessed frequently and know the directions.Say:When I say ‘Begin,’ start reading aloud at the top of this page.
28 Things to do After Testing Score immediately!Determine WRC.Put a slash (/) through incorrect words.If doing multiple samples, organize your impressions of qualitative features.
29 What is a Word Read Correctly? Correctly pronounced words within context.Self-corrected incorrect words within 3 seconds.
30 What is an Error? Mispronunciation of the word Substitutions Omissions 3-Second pauses or struggles (examiner provides correct word)
31 What is not Incorrect? (Neither a WRC or an Error) RepetitionsDialect differencesInsertions (consider them qualitative errors)
32 ExampleJuan finished reading after 1 minute at the 145th word, so he read 145 words total.Juan also made 3 errors.Therefore his WRC was 142 with 3 errors.Reported as: 142/3.
33 R-CBM Activity: Tallying Scores & Calculating Median
34 Data: Get the MEDIAN score for student’s 3 passages: CORRECT WORDS 67 / / / 91 min min min.Why use Median vs. Average?Averages are susceptible to outliers when dealing with small number sets. Median Score is a statistically more reliable number than average for R-CBM.
35 MEDIAN SCORE: 74/8 (Report in AIMSweb®) Data: Get the MEDIAN score for student’s 3 passages: ERRORS67 / / / 9MEDIAN SCORE: 74/8(Report in AIMSweb®)NOTE: R-CBM is the only measure for which the median score is calculated.So the final score we report is 74 words read correctly with 8 errors.1 min min min.Why use Median vs. Average?Averages are susceptible to outliers when dealing with small number sets. Median Score is a statistically more reliable number than average for R-CBM.
36 BENCHMARK DATA ACTIVITY Go to P. 2 of your trainee manualCalculate the Median Score for Hannah Berg WRC = Words Read Correct ERRORS = Number of ErrorsWRC/ErrorsExample: 64/2
37 (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)
38 (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.) (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)
39 Practice Exercise 1: Let’s Score – P. 3 in trainee manual
40 Practice Exercise 1: Let’s Score This student read 73 WRC/7 Errors
41 Practice Exercise 2: Let’s Score – P. 3 in trainee manual
42 Practice Exercise 4: Let’s Score This student read 86 WRC/5 Errors
43 Paired Practice – Oral Reading Fluency – P. 4 Trainee Manual P. 4 in Trainee BookletFirst time: partner #1 answers, partner #2 scoresSecond time: partner #2 answers, partner #1 scores
44 Administration and Scoring of READING-MAZE (R-MAZE) for Use in General Outcome Measurement Power Point Authored byJillyan KennedyBased on Administration and Scoring of Reading R-MAZE for Usewith AIMSweb Training WorkbookByMichelle M. Shinn, Ph.D.Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D
45 R-MAZE is Used for Scientific Reasons Based on Evidence It is a reliable and valid indicator of student achievement.It is simple, efficient, and of short duration to facilitate frequent administration by teachers.It provides assessment information that helps teachers plan better instruction.It is sensitive to the improvement of students’ achievement over time.It is easily understood by teachers and parents.Improves achievement when used to monitor progress.MAZE meets the same criteria for a quality screener that the early literacy and RCBM measures.
46 Curriculum Based Measurement Reading R-MAZE CBM R-MAZE is designed to provide educators a more complete picture of students’ reading skills, especially when comprehension problems are suspected.AreaTimingTest ArrangementsWhat is Scored?CBM R-MAZE Reading3 minutesIndividual, Small Group, or Classroom Group# of Correct Answers
47 Curriculum Based Measurement Reading R-MAZE (Continued) R-MAZE is a multiple-choice cloze task that students complete while reading silently.The students are presented with word passages.The first sentence is left intact.After the first sentence, every 7th word is replaced with three word choices inside a parenthesis.The three choices consist of:Near DistracterExact MatchFar Distracter
50 Administration and Scoring of CBM R-MAZE What examiners need to do . . .Before testing studentsWhile testing studentsAfter testing students
51 Items Students Need Before Testing What the students need for testing:CBM R-MAZE practice testAppropriate CBM R-MAZE passagesPencils
52 Items Administrators Need Before Testing What the tester uses for testing:StopwatchAppropriate CBM R-MAZE answer keyAppropriate standardized directionsList of students to be tested.On your end, make sure you have your timer, standardized directions, and the answer key.
53 Things You Need to do While Testing Follow the standardized directions:Attach a cover sheet that includes the practice test so that students do not begin the test right away.Do a simple practice test with younger students.Monitor to ensure students are circling answers instead of writing them.Be prepared to “Prorate” for students who may finish early.Try to avoid answering student questions.Adhere to the end of timing.
54 CBM R-MAZE Standard Directions Pass R-MAZE tasks out to students. Have students write their names on the cover sheet, so they do not start early. Make sure they do not turn the page until you tell them to.Say this to the student (s):When I say ‘Begin’ I want you to silently read a story. You will have 3 minutes to read the story and complete the task. Listen carefully to the directions. Some of the words in the story are replaced with a group of 3 words. Your job is to circle the 1 word that makes the most sense in the story. Only 1 word is correct.Decide if a practice test is needed. Say . . .Let’s practice one together. Look at your first page. Read the first sentence silently while I read it out loud: ‘The dog, apple, broke, ran after the cat.’ The three choices are apple, broke, ran. ‘The dog apple after the cat.’ That sentence does not make sense. ‘The dog broke after the cat.’ That sentence does not make sense. ‘The dog ran after the cat.’ That sentence does make sense, so circle the word ran. (Make sure the students circle the word ran.)
55 CBM R-MAZE Standard Directions (Continued) Let’s go to the next sentence. Read it silently while I read it outloud. ‘The cat ran fast, green, for up the hill. The three choicesare fast, green, for up the hill. Which word is the correct wordfor the sentence? (The students answer fast)Yes, ‘The cat ran fast up the hill’ is correct, so circle the correct word fast. (Make sure students circle fast)Silently read the next sentence and raise your hand when you think you know the answer. (Make sure students know the correctword. Read the sentence with the correct answer)That’s right. ‘The dog barked at the cat’ is correct. Now what doyou do when you choose the correct word? (Students answer ‘Circle it’. Make sure the students understand the task)That’s correct, you circle it. I think you’re ready to work on astory on your own.
56 CBM R-MAZE Standard Directions (Continued) Start the testing by saying . . .When I say ‘Begin’ turn to the first story and start reading silently. When you come to a group of three words, circle the 1 word that makes the most sense. Work as quickly as you can without making mistakes. If you finish a/ the page/first side, turn the page and keep working until I say ‘Stop’ or you are all done. Do you have any questions?Then say, ‘Begin.’ Start your stopwatch.Monitor students to make sure they understand that they are to circle only 1 word.If a student finished before the time limit, collect the student’s R-MAZE task and record the time on the student’s test booklet.At the end of 3 minutes say: Stop. Put your pencils down. Please close your booklet.Collect the R-MAZE tasks.
57 CBM R-MAZE Familiar Directions After the students have put their names on the cover sheer, start the testing by saying . . .When I say ‘Begin’ turn to the first story and start reading silently. When you come to a group of three words, circle the 1 word that makes the most sense. Work as quickly as you can without making mistakes. If you finish a/ the page/first side, turn the page and keep working until I say ‘Stop’ or you are all done. Do you have any questions?Then say, ‘Begin.’ Start your stopwatch.Monitor students to make sure they understand that they are to circle only 1 word.If a student finished before the time limit, collect the student’s R-MAZE task and record the time on the student’s test booklet.At the end of 3 minutes say: Stop. Put your pencils down. Please close your booklet.Collect the R-MAZE tasks.
58 Things to Do After Testing Score immediately to ensure accurate results!Determine the number of words (items) correct.Use the answer key and put a slash (/) through incorrect words.After they’re done, slash all incorrect words and count up the number of correct words. That’s their final score.
59 An answer is considered an error if the student: CBM R-MAZE ScoringWhat is correct?The students circles the word that matches the correct word on the scoring template.What is incorrect?An answer is considered an error if the student:Circles an incorrect wordOmits word selections other than those the studentwas unable to complete before the 3 minutesexpired
60 Making Scoring Efficient Count the total number of items up to the last circled word.Compare the student answers to the correct answers on the scoring template. Mark a slash [/] through incorrect responses.Subtract the number of incorrect answers from the total number of items attempted.Record the total number of correct answers on the cover sheet followed by the total number of errors (e.g., 35/2).
61 Paired Practice : Let’s Score – Trainee Manual P. 5 P. 5 in Trainee BookletFirst time: partner #1 answers, partner #2 gives full directions (P. 18) and administers passage on P. 22Second time: partner #2 answers, partner #1 gives abbreviated directions (P. 20)
62 Accessing Your Materials Two options:- Print materials online- Pull materials from folder at school and make copies
67 Accessing the Materials Folder Your school will have one Benchmark package and one Progress Monitoring PackageBenchmarking Package contains:Student Materials Folder for each grade levelContains the materials the student will have in front of them when testing for each grade level (make one copy of each MAZE passage for each student because they will be writing on them)Teacher Materials Folder for each grade levelContains scoring booklet for each grade level (make one copy per student in your class)Contains administration and scoring manual for each measureContains MAZE answer key for benchmark passages (Grades 3-8)Progress Monitoring Package contains:One copy of each progress monitoring probe and answer key at each grade level
68 Distribution of Materials and Collection of Data Make a plan of action:Who will distribute materials (i.e., scoring booklets, student probes) at your school during benchmarking?Will each teacher print/copy their own materials? Or will one person distribute the materials to all the teachers?When will your school begin benchmarking (a two-week window recommended as the maximum time for each benchmarking period)?Where will testing take place?What logistical barriers to testing exist and how will those be handled?
69 (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.) Easy Score EntryOnce data are collected, it is easily entered into AIMSweb®’s web-based software.Simply type in the scores! (pictured at left)Dozens of reports are then instantly available.(Estimated time: 3-5 minutes.)(All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)
70 (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.) AIMSweb as a Program Evaluation Tool: Benchmark 3x/year for Universal Screening—All Kids(All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)
71 Michael Martin: A student with Benchmark Data that indicates he is performing significantly behind peers at his school.
72 Fall Benchmark Data for Michael Martin Martin, Michael: Grade 5(All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)
73 Box & Whiskers Graphs (box plots): A 3-Step Explanation 132Average Range (middle 50%)AIMSweb commonly uses box plots to report data.AIMSweb’s Box plots are somewhat similar in shape and representation as to a vertical bell curve.Michael MartinAbove 90th percentile*Above Average Range90th percentile*Target Line*75th percentileMedian (50th percentile)25th percentileAverage range of population included in sample.**Below Average Range10th percentile*Below 10th percentile**In relation to user-defined comparison group
74 Grade 5: Michael’s School Grade 5: Michael’s District Discussion: Consider Michael’s R-CBM performance in relationship to different AIMSweb® Comparison GroupsGrade 5: Michael’s SchoolGrade 5: Michael’s DistrictGrade 5: National Aggregate Norms(All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)
75 Grade 5: Michael’s School Grade 5: Michael’s District Michael appears to be performing below expectations when compared to all three comparison groups.Consider modifying instructional program(s)Consider increasing frequency of assessment to assess efficacy of alternate program(s)Review data regularly to assess progressGrade 5: Michael’s SchoolGrade 5: Michael’s DistrictGrade 5: National Aggregate Norms(All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)
79 An Introductory Look at Additional Benchmark Data
80 Individual Report: 3rd Grade Student QUESTIONS:What does report suggest about Viviana’s progress?What does report suggest about the school’s progress for its 3rd grade students?What if you saw this pattern in only one school’s 3rd grade within your district?What if you saw this pattern across most or all 3rd grade groups in your district?
81 Data to Know that Things Went Well QUESTIONS:What does report suggest about Heather A’s progress?SPRING: Compared to Grade 3 peers at her school, is Heather performing in the: Well Above Average Range? Above Average Range? Average Range? Below Average Range? Well-Below Average Range?
82 Have Data to Know When Things Need Changing QUESTIONS:What are possible reasons why U. Boardman might not be making progress?What might happen if nothing is done to address U. Boardman’s needs?Without this type of visual data, collected at each Benchmark period, do you believe U. Boardman’s stagnation would have been quickly noticed otherwise?
84 Tier 2: Strategic Monitor Strategic Monitor: (1x/month)Provides option to increase assessment frequency from three times per year to once per month for select students.Example of Strategic Monitor report containing monthly data collected over a full school year(All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)
85 Strategic Monitoring: October (Lindsey Hunter) (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)
86 TIER 3: Progress Monitor Intensive monitoring of individualized goals for students at-risk of failure3
87 (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.) Progress Monitor (Tier 3): Intensive assessment with adjustable frequency that matches need3(All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)
88 (All identifying information and scores are fictitious.) Benchmark (Tier 1): 3x per yearStrategic Monitoring (Tier 2): 1x per month for select students at risk for educational difficulties Progress Monitor (Tier 3): Intensive assessment with adjustable frequency that matches need(All identifying information and scores are fictitious.)