Presentation on theme: "HANDOUTS: (SEE PROBE PACKET, TOO)"— Presentation transcript:
1HANDOUTS: (SEE PROBE PACKET, TOO) Administration and Scoring of:Early Literacy Measures-To accompany Aimsweb Training Workbook- Administration and Scoring of Early Literacy Measures for Use with AimswebLetter Naming FluencyLetter Sound FluencyPhonemic Segmentation FluencyNonsense Word FluencyReadingOral Reading Fluency (aka-R-CBM)-To accompany Aimsweb Training Workbook- Administration and Scoring of R-CBM for Use in GOMMaze-To accompany Aimsweb Training Workbook- Administration and Scoring of Maze for Use in GOM
2Letter Naming Fluency Turn to your manual (p. 15) and Turn to the Letter Naming Probe in your second packet. You will see the examiner probe (with numbers) and the student probe (without numbers).
6p.16 Letter Naming Standard Administrative Directions 3. “Here are some letters (point to student copy). Begin here, (point to first letter) and tell me the names of as many letters as you can. If you come to a letter you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. Are there any questions? Put your finger under the first letter. Ready, begin.”4. Start your stopwatch. If the student fails to say the first letter name after 3 secs., tell the student the letter name and mark as incorrect. Point to the next letter.5. If the student provides the letter sound rather than the letter name say, “Remember to tell me the letter name, not the sound it makes.” This prompt can be provided once during the administration. If the student continues providing letter sounds, mark each letter as incorrect and indicate by making a note at the top of the examiner copy.6. If zero correct in first row (10 letters), discontinue and record a 0.7. Follow along on examiner copy. Put a slash through letters named incorrectly.8. Maximum time for each letter is 3 seconds. If doesn’t give in 3 sec., tell student name and mark as incorrect. Point to next letter and say, “What letter?”9. At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket after last letter named and say, “Stop.”Source: AIMSweb/ Michelle Shinn & Mark Shinn
7What is a correct letter name? (p. 17) A correctly named letter.Confused I’s and L’s as a function of font. Letters that look alike will have different names depending on the font and case. For these letters, either name is corret.Self corrections. If a student makes an error and correct her/himself within 3 seconds, write ‘SC’ above the letter and do not count as an error.Note: Articulation and Dialect. A student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or second language pronunciations.
8What is an incorrect letter name? p.17What is an incorrect letter name?Substitution of a different letter for the stimulus letter (‘P’ for ‘D’)Omissions of a letterStops or struggles with a letter for more than 3 seconds.Note: Skipped Row. If a student skips an entire row, draw a line through the row and do not count the row in scoring.
9VIDEO LET’S PRACTICE… See bottom of pg. 17 for example. Try to time and score along!
11See Letter Naming Fluency Accuracy of Implementation Rating Scale (AIRS)- p. 49 in packet.Observe or Self checklist to ensure high reliability of results.
12Letter Sound Fluency Turn to your manual (p. 20) and Turn to the Letter Sound Fluency Probe in your second packet. You will see the examiner probe (with numbers) and the student probe (without numbers).
15p.21 Letter Sounds Standard Administrative Directions 3. “Here are some letters (point to student copy). Begin here, (point to first letter) and tell me the sounds (with emphasis) of as many letters as you can. If you come to a letter you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. Are there any questions? Put your finger under the first letter. Ready, begin.”4. Start your stopwatch. Follow along on examiner copy. Put a slash through letters named incorrectly.If doesn’t give in 3 sec., tell student sound and mark as incorrect. Point to next letter and say, “What sound?”5. If student says letter name say “remember to tell me the sound the letter makes, not its name.” Say only once. If student continues with names, mark each incorrect.6. If no correct letter sounds with first 10 letters, discontinue and score 0.7. Follow along and put a slash through incorrect letter sounds.8. The max. time for each letter is 3 secs. If the student does not provide the letter sound within 3 secs., tell the student the letter sound and mark as incorrect. Point to the next letter and say, ‘What sound?’.9. At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket after last letter named and say, “Stop.”
19See Letter Sound Fluency Accuracy of Implementation Rating Scale (AIRS)Observe or Self checklist to ensure high reliability of results.
20Phonemic Segmentation Fluency Turn to your manual (p. 25) andTurn to the Phonemic Segmentation Fluency Probe in your second packet. You will see the examiner probe (with numbers) and NO STUDENT PROBE).
23Phonemic Segmentation Standard Administrative Directions “I’m going to say a word. After I say it, I want you to tell me all the sounds in the word. So, if I say, “Sam,” you would say /s/ /a/ /m/. Let’s try one (one-second pause). Tell me the sounds in “mop”.Correct ResponseIf student says, /m/ /o/ /p/, you sayIncorrect ResponseIf student give any other response, you say,“Very good.”“The sounds in “mop” are /m/ /o/ /p/. Your turn. Tell me the sounds in “mop”.”p.26Source: AIMSweb/ Michelle Shinn & Mark Shinn
26Phonemic Segmentation: Scoring (p. 27) What is Correct?Students may receive credit for any different, correct, part of the word represented by sounds that correspond to the word part.May receive credit for1.complete segmentation,2. incomplete segmentation3. overlapping segmentation.Source: AIMSweb/ Michelle Shinn & Mark Shinn
27Phonemic Segmentation: Scoring-complete segmentation (p.27) Student is given credit for each correct sound segment produced correctly.WordStudent SaysScoringCorrect Segmentstrick“t…r..i..ck”/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/4/4cat“c…a…t”/k/ /a/ /t/3/3Source: AIMSweb/ Michelle Shinn & Mark Shinn
28Phonemic Segmentation: Scoring-incomplete segmentation(p. 27) Student is given credit for each correct sound segment, even if not at the phoneme level. (You are listening for correct component parts.)The underline indicates the size of the sound segment.WordStudent SaysScoringCorrect Segmentstrick“tr..ick”/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/2/4cat“c…at”/k/ /a/ /t/2/3Source: AIMSweb/ Michelle Shinn & Mark Shinn
29Phonemic Segmentation: Scoring – overlapping segmentation (p. 28) Student is given credit for each different correct sound segment. /Tri/ and /ick/ are both correct segments of trick.WordStudent SaysScoringCorrect Segmentstrick“tri..ick”/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/2/4cat“c…cat”/k/ /a/ /t/1/3Source: AIMSweb/ Michelle Shinn & Mark Shinn
31Phonemic Segmentation: Scoring p. 28) Schwa sounds, additions, and elongated sounds also are not counted as errors.Some phonemes cannot be pronounced correctly in isolation without a vowel: Examiner says ‘trick’; student says ‘tu..ru..I..ku’. Cat: ku..a..tu..Additions are not counted as errors if they are separated form the other sounds in words: trick….t..r..i..ck..s; cat..s..c..a..tArticulation and dialect are not counted as errors. Rest…r..e..th..t.Elongated:Ex: (top of p. 29) rest….rrrrrrrrrrrrrreeeeeeeeeesssssssttttt.Source: AIMSweb/ Michelle Shinn & Mark Shinn
37See Phonemic Segmentation Fluency Accuracy of Implementation Rating Scale (AIRS)Observe or Self checklist to ensure high reliability of results.
38Nonsense Word Fluency Turn to your manual (p. 34) and Turn to the Nonsense Word Fluency probe in your second packet. See sample words: BIM LAT.You will see the examiner probe (with numbers) and the student probe (without numbers).
42Nonsense Word Standard Administrative Directions (p. 35) 2.“Look at this word (point to the first word on the practice probe). It’s a make-believe word, not a real word. All the letters have sounds: (point to the letter “b”) /b/, (point to the letter “i”) /i/, (point to the letter “m”) /m/.Altogether the sounds are /b/ /i/ /m/ (point to each letter) or “bim” (run your finger fast through the whole word).Remember, it is a made up word. You can say the sounds of the letters, /b/ /i/ /m/ (point to each letter), or you can say the whole word “bim” (run your finger fast through the whole word). Be sure to say any sounds you know.”Source: AIMSweb/ Michelle Shinn & Mark Shinn
44Nonsense Word Standard Administrative Directions (p. 35) “Ready? Let’s try one. Read this word the best you can (point to the word “lat”). Point to each letter and tell me the sound or tell me the whole word.”Correct Response:If the child responds “lat” or with some or all of the sounds, sayIncorrect Response:If the child does not respond w/in 3 sec. or responds incorrectly say“That’s right. The sounds are /l/ /a/ /t/ or “lat””“Watch me (point to the letter “l” etc.) /l/, /a/, /t/. Altogether the sounds are /l/ /a//t/ or “lat” Remember, you can say the sounds or you can say the whole word. Let’s try again. Read this word the best you can.” (Point to ‘lat)Source: AIMSweb/ Michelle Shinn & Mark Shinn
46Nonsense Word Standard Administrative Directions (p. 36) 3. “Here are some more make-believe words. When I say “begin”, start here, go across the page, and read the words the best you can. Remember, you can tell me the sound of the letter or read the whole word. Put your finger under the first word. Ready, begin.”4.Start your stopwatch. Follow along on examiner copy and underline each correct phoneme. Put a slash through incorrect or omitted phonemes.If doesn’t give in 3 sec., tell student sound point to next sound and say, “What sound?” If incorrect, point to next word.5.If no correct sounds in words 1-5, discontinue with 0 score.6. Follow along and underline each phoneme read correctly, either in isolation or in context of the nonsense word. Slash incorrects.7. At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket after last letter named and say, “Stop.”
54Reported as WRC/errors This page is not in your handout.Reading - Curriculum-Based Measurement (R-CBM)Students read aloud for 1 minute from Edformation’s Standard Reading Assessment Passages of meaningful, connected text.Number of words read correct and number of errors are counted.Reported as WRC/errorsSource: AIMSweb/M ark Shinn
55An Example of R-CBM - Reading Clip1 -Practice Video 1 SCORE ALONG…Source: AIMSweb/M ark Shinn
56Observation Questions This page is not in your handout.Observation QuestionsWhat did you observe about this child’s reading?Is she a good reader?Give your reason(s) for your answer to the second question?About how many words did she read correctly?Source: AIMSweb/M ark Shinn
57Look for the Qualitative Features of Good (or Poor) Reading Reads Efficiently?Reads Accurately--Greater than 95%Reads with Expression and ProsodyHas Effective Strategy for Word They Don’t KnowReading Errors Preserve Meaning Rather than DISTORT MeaningEngages in Comprehension Self-Monitoring (Self Corrects)Use Page 19 Qualitative features again.This page is not in your handout.
59R-CBM is Used for Scientific Reasons Based on Evidence: It is a reliable and valid indicator of student achievement.It is simple, efficient, and of short duration to facilitate frequent administration by teachers.It provides assessment information that helps teachers plan better instruction.It is sensitive to the improvement of students’ achievement over time.It is easily understood by teachers and parents.Improves achievement when used to monitor progress.Source: AIMSweb/M ark ShinnThis page is not in your handout.
60Things to Always Remember About R-CBM Are designed to serve as “indicators” of general reading achievement. R-CBM doesn’t measure everything, but measures the important things.Are Standardized tests to be given, scored, and interpreted in a standard way.Are researched for 3 decades with respect to psychometric properties to ensure accurate measures of learning.Source: AIMSweb/M ark ShinnThis page is not in your handout.
62p.12 R-CBM Standard Directions for 1 Minute Administration Place the unnumbered copy in front of the student.Place the numbered copy in front of you, but shielded so the student cannot see what you record.Say:When I say ‘Begin,’ start reading aloud at the top of this page. Read across the page (DEMONSTRATE BY POINTING). Try to read each word. If you come to a word you don’t know, I will tell it to you. Be sure to do your best reading. Are there any questions? (PAUSE)Say “Begin” and start your stopwatch when the student says the first word. If the student fails to say the first word of the passage after 3 seconds, tell them the word, mark it as incorrect, then start your stopwatch.Follow along on your copy. Put a slash ( / ) through words read incorrectly.At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket ( ] ) after the last word and say, “Stop.”Score and summarize by writing WRC/Errorsp.12Source: AIMSweb/M ark Shinn
72Calculating and Reporting R-GOM Scores Record total number of words read.Subtract the number of errors.Report in standard format of WRC/Errors (72/3).Source: AIMSweb/M ark Shinn
73ExampleJuan finished reading after 1 minute at the 145th word, so he read 145 words total.Juan also made 3 errors.Therefore his WRC was 142 with 3 errors.Reported as 142/3.Source: AIMSweb/M ark Shinn
78See Oral Reading Fluency Accuracy of Implementation Rating Scale (AIRS)Observe or Self checklist to ensure high reliability of results.
79Accuracy of Implementation (AIRS) We like to check people out using the AIRS on p Here is where people can role play and practice giving feedback on the AIR.
80CBM IS A General Outcome Measure Common Characteristics of GOMs The same kind of evaluation technology as other professionsPowerful measures that are:SimpleAccurateEfficient indicators of performance that guide and inform a variety of decisionsGeneralizable thermometer that allows for reliable, valid, cross comparisons of dataWe can do it often- simplitictCan get accurate indicators about instruction and intervention programsUse of a common thermometer
81General Outcome Measures (GOMs) from Other Fields Medicine measures height, weight, temperature, and/or blood pressure.Federal Reserve Board measures the Consumer Price Index.Wall Street measures the Dow-Jones Industrial Average.Companies report earnings per share.McDonald’s measures how many hamburgers they sell.Reliable measures that give us good feedbackGood baseline/starting pointWe can screen people using these measures very quickly.Every doctor does not use every measureFor many students, we can determine if students are doing well in an easy, efficient manner. They don’t all need extensive assessment if they are doing well.Don’t worry about the wrong things.CBM- assess everyone using quick measures.Can constantly monitor the efficacy of instructional programs on an ongoing basis.Simple, quick, reliable, and give a good indicator of how things are progressing over time
82What Does R-CBM Measure? ALLThese SkillsGeneral Reading SkillPhonemic AwarenessAlphabetic UnderstandingFluencyVocabularyComprehensionDespite some attempts to put a standard measure of oral reading “into a box” when a student reads aloud, we are assigned a student’s overall general reading achievement skills. The best way to know how well a S reads is to LISTEN to them...under standard conditions.Now we know that some of you will be anxious that you know students who can do this, but don’t comprehend. That’s a complex issue we need to understand more fully. Comprehension results FROM reading but is NOT “reading”...
85Maze exact match near distracter far distracter A multiple-choice cloze taskStudents read silently for 3 minutesFirst sentence of a word passage left intactEvery 7th word is replaced with a blankAbout total blanks for each maze3 choicesexact matchnear distracterfar distracterIt is a multiple choice test constructed according to conventional maze practices. See page 7 and page 8
86Reading Maze A Group Administered and Silent Reading Test for Intermediate and Older Students Maze is an efficient tool for older readers. We prefer Grade 4 and older. It is efficient with middle school students and older students with reading difficulty. You can small group test as long as you monitor carefully to avoid cheating or rapid guessing.
87Use a Practice Test for Younger Students Some students find understanding what exactly to do challenging. Consider using this simple practice test.
88p. 14Maze Standard Administration Directions Including Cover Sheet and Easy Practice Test1. Pass out maze to students. Have students write their names on the Cover Sheet so they do not start early. Make sure they do not turn the page until you tell them to.2. Say to the students:When I say ‘begin’ I want you to read a story. You will have 3 minutes to read the story and complete the task. Listen carefully to the directions. Some of the words in the story are missing. In their place is a blank. Under the blank are 3 words. Your job is to circle the 1 word that makes sense in the story. Only 1 word is correct.3. Decide if practice test is needed. Say…Let’s practice one together. Look at your first page. Read the first sentence silently while I read it out loud: ‘The dog/ blank/ after the cat.’ Under the blank are 3 words: apple, broke, ran. ‘The dog /apple/ after the cat.’ That doesn’t make sense. ‘The dog/broke/ after the cat.’ That doesn't make sense. ‘The dog/ ran/ after the cat.’ That does make sense. So circle the correct word,/ran/(Make sure students circle /ran/).Go to p. 14
89p. 14Let’s go to the next sentence. Read it silently while I read it out loud. The cat /blank/ up the hill. The choices are fast, green, for. Which word is correct in the sentence?(Students answer /fast/)Yes, ‘The cat ran/ fast/ up the hill’ is correct. So circle the correct word/fast/.(Make sure students circle /fast/)Read the next sentence silently and raise your hand when you think you know the answer.(Make sure students know the correct word. Read the sentence with the correct answer)That’s right, ‘The dog/ barked/ at the cat’ is correct. Now what do you do when you choose the correct word?(Students answer ‘circle it;’ make sure students understand the task)That’s right, you circle it. I think you’re ready to work on a story on your own.
90p. 15Maze Standard Administration Directions For Older Students and Students Are Familiar with the Maze DirectionsGo to page 15.