Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Origins of American Government"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 2 Origins of American Government Section 1The Colonial Period
2An English Political Heritage The English colonists brought with them a heritage of freedom and principles of government that helped shape the development of the United States.
3An English Political Heritage The concept of limited government, dating from the Magna Carta was an accepted part of the English system.
4An English Political Heritage The Petition of Right in 1628 severely limited the power of the English monarch.The colonists believed in the limits on the ruler’s power and the freedoms protected in the English Bill of Rights passed by Parliament in 1688.
5An English Political Heritage The colonists firmly believed in representative government, following the model of Parliament.
6An English Political Heritage The ideas of 17th century English philosopher John Locke deeply influenced the American colonists.
7Journal Read pages 35 – 38 and then answer the following question: Why were John Locke’s ideas considered revolutionary?
8Government in the Colonies The present system of American government evolved largely from colonial governments and their practices.Written plans for government were a key feature of the colonial period.
9Government in the Colonies Representative assemblies elected by the people helped establish the tradition of representative government in America.
10Government in the Colonies The division of government powers among the governor, the colonial legislatures, and colonial courts helped establish the principle of the separation of powers.
11Chapter 2 Origins of American Government Section 2Uniting for Independence
12The Colonies on Their Own Although Britain regarded the American colonies largely as a source of economic benefits, it allowed them limited self-government.
13The Colonies on Their Own The British government tightened its control over the colonies after the French and Indian War.
14The Colonies on Their Own King George III and his ministers made the colonies pay for the war by levying new taxes.
15Journal Read pages 42 & 43, then answer the following question: Why do you think the British government allowed the American colonies to develop their own governments?
16Harsh British policies and taxes helped unite the colonies. Colonial UnityHarsh British policies and taxes helped unite the colonies.Stamp ActIntolerable Acts
17Colonial UnityTo protest British policies, the colonists sent petitions to the king and also organized committees of correspondence.
18Colonial UnityThe First Continental Congress held in Philadelphia in 1774 debated what the colonies should do about their relationship with Britain.When the Second Continental Congress met in 1775, fighting had begun and Congress acted as a central government to carry on the Revolution.
19Colonial UnityThomas Paine’s Common Sense strengthened the independence movement.
21The Declaration set forth the principles for the new nation. Independence!The Declaration set forth the principles for the new nation.A committee of delegates to the Philadelphia Congress, headed by Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
22Independence!By 1776 eight states had adopted written constitutions, which were based on the consent of the governed, limited government, and the protection of individual rights.
23Declaration of Independence The Declaration has three main parts:A statement of purpose including a description of basic human rights.A list of specific complaints against King George IIIA statement of colonists’ determination to separate from Great Britain
24Declaration of Independence Turn to page 770 and read the Declaration of Independence.Why did Jefferson’s words in the Declaration of Independence stir the hearts of the American people?
25Chapter 2 Origins of American Government Section 3The Articles of Confederation
26Government Under the Articles The nation’s first government included a single-chamber, or unicameral, Congress with limited powers.Each state had one vote, but it had no executive branch or court system.
27Weaknesses of the Articles The Congress had no power to collect taxes and had to depend on the states for money; it had no power to regulate trade; and it had no power to enforce the laws.Amending the Articles required the approval of all the states.
28Weaknesses of the Articles The central government had no president or executive branch and carried out much of its work through congressional committees.There was no system of national courts; instead state courts enforced and interpreted laws.
29AchievementsDespite its weaknesses, the Confederation government established a fair policy for developing western land.The Confederation government signed the peace treaty with England.
30The Need for Stronger Government Soon after the war, disputes broke out among the states; the government’s debt left soldiers unpaid.Many were alarmed when an economic depression in 1786 lead to an armed farmers rebellion in Massachusetts known as Shay’s Rebellion.
31The Need for Stronger Government Leaders who favored a stronger government failed to accomplish much at the 1786 Annapolis Convention, but persuaded the Confederation Congress to call a convention in Philadelphia to revise and update the Articles of Confederation.
32Journal Answer the following question: What deficiencies in the Articles of Confederation made them too weak to ensure the peace and tranquility of the United States?
33Chapter 2 Origins of American Government Section 4The Constitutional Convention
34Did you know…That the delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia held all their meetings in secret. For five months, May to Sept. 1787, guards stood watch at every door of Independence Hall to bar the public and reporters while the delegates argued and debated the provisions of the Constitution. Ironically, the great document that guarantees the basic rights and freedoms of all Americans was written without any input from the people.
35The Convention BeginsThe delegates to the Constitutional Convention had great practical experience in politics and government and included many of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation.
36The Convention BeginsThe delegates decided to give up the idea of revising the Articles and to draft a new plan of government.The delegates held their meetings in secret, deciding each state would have one vote, all decisions would be by majority vote, and a quorum of seven states was required for all meetings.
37Decisions and Compromises Virginia Plan – proposed a strong executive, a national judiciary, and a strong two-house legislature in which the lower house would be chosen by the people and the upper house would be chosen by the lower housel. This plan favored the large, more populated states.
38Decisions and Compromises New Jersey Plan – proposed a weak executive of more than one person elected by the Congress, a national judiciary with limited powers, and a one house legislature, with one vote for each state. This plan favored the small states.
39Decisions and Compromises Connecticut Compromise – proposed a legislative branch with two parts: the House of Representatives based on population, and the Senate with two members from each state. This gave large states an advantage in the House and protected small states in the Senate.
40Decisions and Compromises Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise – allowed the slave trade to continue until Congress was forbidden to tax exports and was granted power to regulate both interstate commerce and trade with other nations.
41Decisions and Compromises The delegates agreed to include a four-year term for the president and an Electoral College rather then direct election of the president.
42Decisions and Compromises One of the largest issues the constitution faced was slavery. Northern states wanted to eliminate slavery in the country but knew that this would upset the Southern states. Therefore the issue of slavery was not addressed.Three-Fifths of a states slave population was counted toward the total population.
43JournalRead pages 53 – 56 of the textbook and answer the following question:Why were the delegates to the Constitutional Convention able to work together despite their disagreements?
44Ratifying the Constitution Supporters and opponents of the Constitution began a great debate over whether to accept or reject it.
45Ratifying the Constitution Federalists – support the ratification of the Constitution for a strong central government to solve the nations issues and deal w/ foreign countriesA. Hamilton
46Ratifying the Constitution Anti-Federalists – opposed ratification. Claimed that important powers were taken away from the states and there was no Bill of Rights.Thomas Jefferson
47Ratifying the Constitution When the Federalists promised to add a Bill of Rights, and the small states learned about the Connecticut Compromise, the battle over ratification was finally won.
48Ratifying the Constitution The new national government was launched in 1789 when Congress met for the first time in New York City. Soon after, George Washington took the oath as the nations 1st President.
49JournalRead pages 56 – 58 in the textbook and answer the following question:Why did ratification of the Constitution cause great debate among people in the various states?