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Chapter 2 Origins of American Government Section 1 The Colonial Period.

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1 Chapter 2 Origins of American Government Section 1 The Colonial Period

2 An English Political Heritage The English colonists brought with them a heritage of freedom and principles of government that helped shape the development of the United States.

3 An English Political Heritage The concept of limited government, dating from the Magna Carta was an accepted part of the English system.

4 An English Political Heritage The Petition of Right in 1628 severely limited the power of the English monarch. The colonists believed in the limits on the rulers power and the freedoms protected in the English Bill of Rights passed by Parliament in 1688.

5 An English Political Heritage The colonists firmly believed in representative government, following the model of Parliament.

6 An English Political Heritage The ideas of 17 th century English philosopher John Locke deeply influenced the American colonists.

7 Journal Read pages 35 – 38 and then answer the following question: Why were John Lockes ideas considered revolutionary?

8 Government in the Colonies The present system of American government evolved largely from colonial governments and their practices. Written plans for government were a key feature of the colonial period.

9 Government in the Colonies Representative assemblies elected by the people helped establish the tradition of representative government in America.

10 Government in the Colonies The division of government powers among the governor, the colonial legislatures, and colonial courts helped establish the principle of the separation of powers.

11 Chapter 2 Origins of American Government Section 2 Uniting for Independence

12 The Colonies on Their Own Although Britain regarded the American colonies largely as a source of economic benefits, it allowed them limited self- government.

13 The Colonies on Their Own The British government tightened its control over the colonies after the French and Indian War.

14 The Colonies on Their Own King George III and his ministers made the colonies pay for the war by levying new taxes.

15 Journal Read pages 42 & 43, then answer the following question: Why do you think the British government allowed the American colonies to develop their own governments?

16 Colonial Unity Harsh British policies and taxes helped unite the colonies. Stamp Act Intolerable Acts

17 Colonial Unity To protest British policies, the colonists sent petitions to the king and also organized committees of correspondence.

18 Colonial Unity The First Continental Congress held in Philadelphia in 1774 debated what the colonies should do about their relationship with Britain. When the Second Continental Congress met in 1775, fighting had begun and Congress acted as a central government to carry on the Revolution.

19 Colonial Unity Thomas Paines Common Sense strengthened the independence movement.

20 Independence!

21 A committee of delegates to the Philadelphia Congress, headed by Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence in 1776. The Declaration set forth the principles for the new nation.

22 Independence! By 1776 eight states had adopted written constitutions, which were based on the consent of the governed, limited government, and the protection of individual rights.

23 Declaration of Independence The Declaration has three main parts: 1. A statement of purpose including a description of basic human rights. 2. A list of specific complaints against King George III 3. A statement of colonists determination to separate from Great Britain

24 Declaration of Independence Turn to page 770 and read the Declaration of Independence. Why did Jeffersons words in the Declaration of Independence stir the hearts of the American people?

25 Chapter 2 Origins of American Government Section 3 The Articles of Confederation

26 Government Under the Articles The nations first government included a single-chamber, or unicameral, Congress with limited powers. Each state had one vote, but it had no executive branch or court system.

27 Weaknesses of the Articles The Congress had no power to collect taxes and had to depend on the states for money; it had no power to regulate trade; and it had no power to enforce the laws. Amending the Articles required the approval of all the states.

28 Weaknesses of the Articles The central government had no president or executive branch and carried out much of its work through congressional committees. There was no system of national courts; instead state courts enforced and interpreted laws.

29 Achievements Despite its weaknesses, the Confederation government established a fair policy for developing western land. The Confederation government signed the peace treaty with England.

30 The Need for Stronger Government Soon after the war, disputes broke out among the states; the governments debt left soldiers unpaid. Many were alarmed when an economic depression in 1786 lead to an armed farmers rebellion in Massachusetts known as Shays Rebellion.

31 The Need for Stronger Government Leaders who favored a stronger government failed to accomplish much at the 1786 Annapolis Convention, but persuaded the Confederation Congress to call a convention in Philadelphia to revise and update the Articles of Confederation.

32 Journal Answer the following question: What deficiencies in the Articles of Confederation made them too weak to ensure the peace and tranquility of the United States?

33 Chapter 2 Origins of American Government Section 4 The Constitutional Convention

34 Did you know… That the delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia held all their meetings in secret. For five months, May to Sept. 1787, guards stood watch at every door of Independence Hall to bar the public and reporters while the delegates argued and debated the provisions of the Constitution. Ironically, the great document that guarantees the basic rights and freedoms of all Americans was written without any input from the people.

35 The Convention Begins The delegates to the Constitutional Convention had great practical experience in politics and government and included many of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation.

36 The Convention Begins The delegates held their meetings in secret, deciding each state would have one vote, all decisions would be by majority vote, and a quorum of seven states was required for all meetings. The delegates decided to give up the idea of revising the Articles and to draft a new plan of government.

37 Decisions and Compromises Virginia Plan – proposed a strong executive, a national judiciary, and a strong two-house legislature in which the lower house would be chosen by the people and the upper house would be chosen by the lower housel. This plan favored the large, more populated states.

38 Decisions and Compromises New Jersey Plan – proposed a weak executive of more than one person elected by the Congress, a national judiciary with limited powers, and a one house legislature, with one vote for each state. This plan favored the small states.

39 Decisions and Compromises Connecticut Compromise – proposed a legislative branch with two parts: the House of Representatives based on population, and the Senate with two members from each state. This gave large states an advantage in the House and protected small states in the Senate.

40 Decisions and Compromises Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise – allowed the slave trade to continue until1808. Congress was forbidden to tax exports and was granted power to regulate both interstate commerce and trade with other nations.

41 Decisions and Compromises The delegates agreed to include a four-year term for the president and an Electoral College rather then direct election of the president.

42 Decisions and Compromises One of the largest issues the constitution faced was slavery. Northern states wanted to eliminate slavery in the country but knew that this would upset the Southern states. Therefore the issue of slavery was not addressed. Three-Fifths of a states slave population was counted toward the total population.

43 Journal Read pages 53 – 56 of the textbook and answer the following question: Why were the delegates to the Constitutional Convention able to work together despite their disagreements?

44 Ratifying the Constitution Supporters and opponents of the Constitution began a great debate over whether to accept or reject it.

45 Ratifying the Constitution Federalists – support the ratification of the Constitution for a strong central government to solve the nations issues and deal w/ foreign countries A. Hamilton

46 Ratifying the Constitution Anti-Federalists – opposed ratification. Claimed that important powers were taken away from the states and there was no Bill of Rights. Thomas Jefferson

47 Ratifying the Constitution When the Federalists promised to add a Bill of Rights, and the small states learned about the Connecticut Compromise, the battle over ratification was finally won.

48 Ratifying the Constitution The new national government was launched in 1789 when Congress met for the first time in New York City. Soon after, George Washington took the oath as the nations 1 st President.

49 Journal Read pages 56 – 58 in the textbook and answer the following question: Why did ratification of the Constitution cause great debate among people in the various states?

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