Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents The Characteristics of Seed Plants Gymnosperms"— Presentation transcript:
1 Table of Contents The Characteristics of Seed Plants Gymnosperms AngiospermsPlant Responses and GrowthFeeding the World
2 How Seeds Become New Plants - The Characteristics of Seed PlantsHow Seeds Become New PlantsA seed has three main parts–an embryo, stored food, and a seed coat. If a seed lands in an area where conditions are favorable, the plant sprouts out of the seed and begins to grow.
3 Root Structure - The Characteristics of Seed Plants A root’s structure is adapted for absorbing water and minerals from the soil.
4 Stems - The Characteristics of Seed Plants Trees have woody stems. A typical woody stem is made up of many layers. The layers of xylem form annual rings that can reveal the age of the tree and the growing conditions it has experienced.
5 Leaves - The Characteristics of Seed Plants Leaves capture and use the sun’s energy to make food. The structure of a leaf is well-adapted for photosynthesis.
6 The Characteristics of Seed Plants OutliningAs you read, make an outline about seed plants that you can use for review. Use the red headings for the main ideas and the blue headings for the supporting ideas.The Characteristics of Seed PlantsWhat Is a Seed Plant?Vascular TissueSeedsHow Seeds Become New PlantsSeed StructureSeed DispersalGerminationRootsTypes of RootsThe Structure of a RootStemsThe Structure of a StemAnnual RingsLeavesThe Structure of a LeafThe Leaf and PhotosynthesisControlling Water Loss
7 Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity about leaves. - The Characteristics of Seed PlantsMore on LeavesClick the PHSchool.com button for an activity about leaves.
8 End of Section: The Characteristics of Seed Plants
9 Reproduction in Gymnosperms First, pollen falls from a male cone onto a female cone. In time, a sperm cell and an egg cell join together in an ovule on the female cone. After fertilization occurs, the seed develops on the scale of the female cone.
10 The Life Cycle of a Gymnosperm - GymnospermsPreviewing VisualsPreview the diagram showing the life cycle of a gymnosperm. Then write two questions that you have about the diagram in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions.The Life Cycle of a GymnospermQ. How does gymnosperm pollination occur?A. Pollen is transferred from a male reproductive structure to a female reproductive structure; wind often carries pollen from male to female cones.Q. How does gymnosperm fertilization occur?A. Pollen collects in a sticky substance produced by ovules. Female scales close to seal in pollen and fertilization occurs.
11 Click the SciLinks button for links on gymnosperms.
13 The Structure of Flowers - AngiospermsThe Structure of FlowersFlowers come in all sorts of shapes, sizes, and colors. But, despite their differences, all flowers have the same function–reproduction.
14 Reproduction in Angiosperms First, pollen falls on a flower’s stigma. In time, the sperm cell and egg cell join together in the flower’s ovule. The zygote develops into the embryo part of the seed.
15 Types of Angiosperms - Angiosperms Angiosperms are divided into two major groups: monocots and dicots.
16 Multiples - Angiosperms Is a flower with 6 petals a monocot? To answer this question you need to determine if 6 is a multiple of 3. A number is a multiple of 3 if there is a nonzero whole number that, when multiplied by 3, gives you that number. In this case, 6 is a multiple of 3 because you can multiply 2 (a nonzero whole number) by 3 to get 6.2 X 3 = 6Therefore, a flower with 6 petals is a monocot. Other multiples of 3 include 9 and 12.
17 Multiples Practice Problem Which of these numbers are multiples of 4? - AngiospermsMultiplesPractice ProblemWhich of these numbers are multiples of 4?6, 10, 12, 1612 and 16
18 Building Vocabulary - Angiosperms Using a word in a sentence helps you think about how best to explain the word. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a meaningful sentence using each Key Term.Key Terms:Key Terms:Examples:monocotdicotKey Terms:Examples:stamenpistilovaryfruitExamples:angiospermRefflesia belongs to the group of seed plants known as angiosperms.The stamens are the male reproductive parts.Monocots are angiosperms that have only one seed leaf.The female parts, or pistils, are found in the center of most flowers.Dicots produce seeds with two seed leaves.flowerA flower is the reproductive structure of an angiosperm.This hollow structure is the ovary, which protects the seeds as they develop.sepalWhen a flower is still a bud, it is enclosed by leaflike structures called sepals.As the seed develops after fertilization, the ovary changes into a fruit—a ripened ovary and other structures that enclose one or more seeds.petalWhen the sepals fold back, they reveal the flower’s colorful, leaflike petals.
20 Seasonal Changes - Plant Responses and Growth The amount of darkness a plant receives determines the time of flowering in many plants.
21 Germination and Temperature - Plant Responses and GrowthGermination and TemperatureOne hundred radish seeds were planted in each of two identical trays of soil. One tray was kept at 10ºC, and one tray was kept at 20ºC. The trays received equal amounts of water and sunlight. The graph shows how many seeds germinated over time at each temperature.
22 Germination and Temperature - Plant Responses and GrowthGermination and TemperatureReading Graphs:What variable is plotted on the horizontal axis? What variable is plotted on the vertical axis?Horizontal axis–days; vertical axis–total number of germinated seeds
23 Germination and Temperature - Plant Responses and GrowthGermination and TemperatureInterpreting Data:How did the number of seeds that germinated change between day 20 and day 25 at 10ºC? At 20ºC?The numbers did not change.
24 Germination and Temperature - Plant Responses and GrowthGermination and TemperatureDrawing Conclusions:According to the graph, at which temperature did more seeds eventually germinate? What can you conclude about the relationship between temperature and germination?20ºC; the number of germinating seeds increases as the temperature increases.
25 Germination and Temperature - Plant Responses and GrowthGermination and TemperaturePredicting:Predict what the graph would look like for a tray of radish seeds kept at 5ºC. Give a reason for your prediction.The slope would be less steep because fewer seeds would germinate.
26 Relating Cause and Effect - Plant Responses and GrowthRelating Cause and EffectA cause makes something happen. An effect is what happens. As you read through the paragraphs under the heading “Hormones and Tropisms," identify four effects of plant hormones. Write the information in a graphic organizer like the one below.EffectsTropismsGerminationCauseForming flowers, stems, leavesPlant hormonesShredding leavesDevelopment and ripening of fruit
27 Links on Plant Responses - Plant Responses and GrowthLinks on Plant ResponsesClick the SciLinks button for links on plant responses.
29 Identifying Main Ideas - Feeding the WorldIdentifying Main IdeasAs you read, write the main idea in a graphic organizer like the one below. Then write three supporting details that give examples of the main idea.Main IdeaTechnologies that may help produce more food include…DetailDetailDetailPrecision farming–uses satellite images and computer to determine the amount of water and fertilizer needed.Hydroponics–plants are grown in solutions of nutrients instead of soil.Genetic engineering–genetic material is altered to produce plants with useful qualities.
30 Click the SciLinks button for links on plants as food. - Feeding the WorldLinks on Plants as FoodClick the SciLinks button for links on plants as food.