3Key things to Know What are the functions of roots, stems, and leaves? How do seeds become new plants?What are the structures of a flower?
4Chapter 12Section 4 Structures of Seed PlantsRootsRoot Functions The following are the main functions of roots:Roots supply plants with water and dissolved minerals via absorption from soilRoots anchor or hold plants securely in the soil.Roots store surplus food made during photosynthesisClick to see root transport
6Root Systems 1 main root, or tap root, that grows downward. Taproot systemsFibrous systems1 main root, or tap root, that grows downward.several roots that spread out from the base of the stem.
7Chapter 12 Section 4 Structures of Seed Plants Root hairs help to anchor plant and absorb nutrients and water
8Chapter 12 Roots, continued Section 4 Structures of Seed PlantsRoots, continuedRoot Structure The layers of cells that cover the surface of the roots is called the epidermis.After water and minerals are absorbed by the epidermis, they diffuse into the center of the root where the vascular tissue is located.A root cap can be found at the end of the root. The root cap protects the tip and helps the root continue to grow.
9Plant Structures Root Structure Roots have many structures. These cause the root to grow longerRoot Cap protect the root
10Chapter 12 Stems Two Main Types Woody and Herbaceous Section 4 Structures of Seed PlantsChapter 12StemsTwo Main TypesWoody and HerbaceousStem Functions A stem connects a plant’s roots to its leaves and flowers. A stem also has the following functions:Stems support the plant body.Stems transport materials between the root system and the shoot system.Some stems store materials such as food.
11Plant Structures Stem Structure The woody stem of a tree contains many different structures. What are the active xylem and phloem on the tree trunk?
12Chapter 12 Herbaceous Stem Stems are soft thin flexible Section 4 Structures of Seed PlantsHerbaceous StemStems aresoftthinflexible
13Chapter 12Section 4 Structures of Seed PlantsWoody Stems Trees and shrubs have rigid stems made of wood and bark. These stems are called woody stems.
14Plant StructuresLeaf function- capture sun light and do photosynthesisStructure-Each structure helps a leaf produce food.
16Chapter 12 Allow CO2 to enter Opens and closes Stoma Section 4 Structures of Seed PlantsThese cell contain chloroplastAllow CO2 to enterOpens and closes Stoma
17Plant Structures Transpiration Click for animation Stomata Stomata can slow water loss.Transpiration Click for animationthe process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to stomata, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere.Orevaporation of water from plant leaves
18Chapter 12 Leaves, continued Leaf Exceptions Section 4 Structures of Seed PlantsLeaves, continuedLeaf ExceptionsSome leaves have functions other than photosynthesis.The leaves of many cactuses are modified as spines. These spines keep animals from eating the cactuses.The leaves of sundews are modified to catch insects, which the sundew digests.
19Chapter 12 The Structure of a Seed Section 3 Seed Plants Protects the embryo and food from drying outembryo
20Plant Structures Story of a Seed Which is the seed’s embryo, cotyledons, and seed coat on the diagram?Stem androotStoredFood
21Seed dispersal Animals eating fruit Seeds hook onto clothing & fur Water in rivers or streams carry seedsWindSome plants eject seeds
22Germination Embryo begins to grow and pushes out of the seed Seeds remain dormant or inactive until conditions are right for germination. All seeds need water, oxygen, and proper temperature in order to germinate.
23Flowers- the reproductive structure for angiosperms Chapter 12Flowers- the reproductive structure for angiospermsPollination-the transfer of pollen from male to female parts of the plantSepals-The modified leaves that make up the outermost ring of flower parts and protect the bud are called sepals.Petals are broad, flat, thin leaflike parts of a flower.
24Chapter 12 Flowers, continued Stamens and Pistils The male reproductive structure of a flower is called a stamen.A Pistil is the female reproductive structure of a flower.
26Note: Theses are short answer questions. Log: Oct. 18thNote: Theses are short answer questions.Can a gymnosperm be classified as a Dicot? Explain why.Explain how you people are beneficial part of a plants seed dispersal and pollination?Work on completing Section 3 Mapping Diagram
27Note: Theses are short answer questions. Log: Oct. 18thNote: Theses are short answer questions.Why do you think angiosperms enclose their seeds in fruit?