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BOTANY The Study of Plants. Part 1: Classifying Plants.

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Presentation on theme: "BOTANY The Study of Plants. Part 1: Classifying Plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 BOTANY The Study of Plants

2 Part 1: Classifying Plants

3 Classifying Plants B.) Vascular plants  Have vascular tissue  Can be taller and live farther away from water

4 Further Classification 2.) Next – vascular plants are divided up based on whether they have seeds A) Seedless vascular plants  Have adapted leaves to protect the developing reproductive cells = sporangia  Still need standing water for reproduction  Examples = ferns

5 Further Classification B.) Vascular plants with seeds  Seeds = an embryo and its food supply inside a tough, protective coat  Advantage is they are independent of water for reproduction (like what the amniote egg did for animals)

6 Even further… 3.) Third division is based on whether the seed in the vascular plants are enclosed & protected by fruit or not enclosed & protected by fruit A) Gymnosperms  have naked seeds that are not enclosed  seeds are released by cones (like pinecones)  Examples = conifers like cycads, ginkgos and evergreens

7 Even Further… B.) Angiosperms  Produce seeds enclosed in fruits  The fruit provides protection for the seeds and helps in seed dispersal  Examples = flowering plants

8 One last division… 4.) One last division of Angiosperms is based on the number of cotyledons (leaf-like structures that store or absorb food for the developing embryo) contained in the seeds

9 Monocots vs. Dicots A) Monocots  One seed leaf  Veins on leaves run parallel  Examples = grasses B) Dicots  Two seed leaves  Veins on leaves are netlike  Examples = trees, wildflowers

10 Monocots vs. Dicots



13 Part 2: Reproduction in Plants A) Flowers & flowering:  The process of sexual reproduction in flowering plants takes place in a flower. The flower is a complex structure made of several organs. There are many sizes, shapes and colors of flowers, yet all share a basic structure that is made up of four kinds of organs:  Sexual Reproduction

14 4 organs of a flower 1) Petals – colorful structures at the top of a flower stem, used to attract pollinators 2) Sepals – green leaf-like structures that encircle the stem just below the petals, protective covering for the flower bud 3) Stamens – male reproductive organ of the flower, made up of the: a) Anther – at the tip, produces pollen that eventually contains sperm b) Filament – supports the anther 4) Pistils – female reproductive organ of the flower, made up of the: a) Stigma – sticky pollen trap at the tip b) Style – supports the stigma c) Ovary – structure at the bottom that contains ovules (eggs)


16 Making more flowers… Pollination b.) Pollination:  transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma  they can be carried by wind, water or animals Fertilization c.) Fertilization:  union of gametes (egg & sperm)  become a seed


18 D. Seeds & Fruits: 1) How does fruit form?  A fruit is a structure that contains the seeds  As seeds develop the surrounding ovary grows larger and becomes the fruit

19 Seeds & Fruits  Some have fleshy fruits like apples and melons

20 Seeds & Fruits  Some have dry fruits like peanuts and sunflower “seeds”

21 2.) What are some methods of seed dipersal?  Animals through spitting, digestion, gathering or sticking to fur  Water by floating in air pockets  Wind – small & light

22 How are new plants reproduced ASEXUALLY?  Vegetative reproduction:  New plants are produced from existing plant organs or parts of organs  New plants have the same genetic makeup as the original plant (remember from before about the advantages & disadvantages of asexual reproduction)

23 Group Plant Assignment  Your group is to research a plant (chosen from the deck of cards) and make an iMovie about it…  Under 2 minutes  Creative  Informative & Accurate  Include the following information…

24 Required Information for Plant iMovie  Is this plant vascular or non-vascular? What does that mean?  Is this plant Seedless or Have seeds?  Fruit or No fruit?  Gymnosperm or Angiosperm (or neither)?  Monocot or Dicot (or neither)?  Does it have flowers? If so, what are they like?  How is its pollen typically transferred? (by what)  What are its seeds like?  Describe its fruit.  What are its methods of seed dispersal  Does this type of plant undergo vegetative reproduction? Why or why not?  Interesting uses of this plant or other interesting facts about it (3)

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