2 MetabolismThe chemical energy stored in food is changed in cells into forms needed to perform all the activities necessary for life.The total of all chemical reactions in an organism is called metabolism.
3 Living things are divided into 2 groups: ProducersOrganisms that make their own food, such as plantsAlso called AUTOTROPHSConsumersOrganisms that cannot make their own food, such as insectsAlso called HETEROTROPHS
4 PhotosynthesisPlants and many other producers convert sunlight energy into chemical energy, which is used to make sugars, which can be used as food.
6 Producing Carbohydrates Producers that use photosynthesis are usually green because they contain a green pigment called chlorophyll, which is used to capture sunlight energy, and can be found in chloroplasts.
12 Storing Carbohydrates Plants make more sugar during photosynthesis than they need, so excess sugar is changed and stored as starches or other carbohydrates, which are used for growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
13 RespirationChemical reactions occur that break down food molecules into simpler substances and release their stored energy.
14 Breaking Down Carbohydrates Respiration of carbohydrates begins in the cytoplasm. Carbs are broken down into glucose molecules, then into 2 simpler molecules in the mitochondria. This uses O2 & releases energy, and produces CO2 & H2O as waste.
16 Photosynthesis Vocab Review Worksheet Water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight are the three ingredients needed for photosynthesis to occur.Through photosynthesis, plants convert these ingredients into glucose, a food used by the plant.Chlorophyll is the material in green plant cells that traps energy from the sun.The plant takes in a gas called carbon dioxide from the air.Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts, structures within the cell where photosynthesis will take place.
17 Water is a material the plant takes up through its roots and stems. During photosynthesis, oxygen is a waste product released by the plant into the air.Plants produce more glucose than they need. The excess glucose is stored by the plant as carbohydrates or starches.Plants also change glucose into cellulose, the structural material used in their cell walls.While chlorophyll is found in most aboveground parts of green plants, most photosynthesis takes place in a plant’s leaves.
18 In many regions, there is not enough sunlight or water during winter for photosynthesis to occur. Most plants are also called autotrophs/producers because they are able to produce their own food.Most animals are called heterotrophs/consumers because they obtain energy from other plants or animals.
19 Workbook pages 47-49 #’s 1-11 What happens during respiration? Cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain.Cells store energy in the form of carbohydratesHow do cells “withdraw” energy?Cells break down carbohydrates to make energyRespiration that takes place inside of cells is the same as breathing air in and out of the lungs.False
20 5. Respiration Raw materials Products Event in respiration SugarOxygenProductsCarbon dioxideWaterEnergyEvent in respirationB – 6. takes place in the mitochondriaA – 7. takes place in the cytoplasmB – 8. Oxygen is involvedC – 9. Energy is releasedA – 10. Glucose molecules are broken downStage of processA) first stageB) second stageC) both first and second stages
22 FermentationWhen cells don’t have enough oxygen for respiration, they use a process called fermentation to release some of the energy stored in glucose molecules.
23 More FermentationBegins in the cytoplasm, but the simple molecules from the breakdown of glucose don’t move into the mitochondria; rather, more chemical reactions occur in the cytoplasm that release energy and produce wastes (lactic acid, alcohol, CO2).