Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 23 Respiration and Excretion

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23 Respiration and Excretion"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 23 Respiration and Excretion

2 When we exercise why do we breathe hard?
Because your body needs more energy to sustain the activity that you are doing. The energy comes from the “burning” or breakdown of food in your cells, which is called Respiration.

3 What components make up the respiratory system?
Nose and Mouth Pharynx Trachea Lungs

4 Nose and Mouth In most cases, air enters the respiratory system through the nose. The nose has 2 openings called the nostrils, which are lined with short hairs. What is the function of those hairs? Filter or screen out particles of dirt and dust from entering the nasal cavity

5 Nose and Mouth cont. Air moving through the nasal cavity is filtered and moistened done by 2 different types of cells. 1st kind of cell secretes a sticky substance called mucus, which traps particles in the air from entering the lungs. 2nd kind of cell is called cilia (tiny hair like structures), which move back and forth, pushing mucus back to the nostrils.

6 Nose and Mouth cont. Mucus that collects in the nostrils can irritate the nose which causes you to sneeze. Sneezing is one way of blowing dirt and dust from the nose.

7 Pharynx Is the throat and the pathway for both food and air.
At the end of the pharynx there is a fork in the road (2 tubes) Esophagus: tube for food to travel to the stomach Windpipe: pathway of air to the lungs

8 Check for understanding
What is the function of the cilia in the nose? Oxygen absorption Movement of mucus to nostrils Secretes musus Kills bacteria Helps you breath

9 What is the function of the Epiglottis?
Flap of tissue where the esophagus and windpipe meet which acts like a trap door. When you inhale, the epiglottis raises and air moves into the windpipe. When you swallow the epiglottis lowers and covers the windpipe.

10 Trachea (windpipe) It is a 13 cm long tube located in front of the esophagus. At the top of the trachea is an organ called the larynx, which is made of tough elastic tissue called cartilage. The larynx contains 2 thin folds of skin called the vocal cords. During normal, quiet breathing, the vocal cords are relaxed, but when you speak they tighten causing them to vibrate and produce sound.

11 Trachea cont. The trachea is made up of rings of cartilage and smooth muscle . The cartilage keeps the trachea open at all times so air can pass through. Like the nasal cavity there are two types of cells found in the trachea one for secreting mucus and the other cilia. Mucus in the trachea can cause irritation which causes coughing.

12 Bronchi and Bronchioles
The lower end of the trachea divides into 2 smaller tubes called the bronchi, which contain rings of cartilage and smooth muscle. Within the lungs, the bronchus branches into many smaller tubes called the bronchioles, which are made only of smooth muscle. They also both secrete mucus and have cilia that aid in trapping particles and transfer of mucus.

13 Check for understanding
What is the function of mucus? Helps you breath Kills bacteria Traps dirt, dust, and bacteria Keeps respiratory system moist

14 Air sacs and Alveoli Bronchioles end in structures called air sacs or alveoli. Each lung contains millions of alveoli. A network of capillaries surround them They are 1 cell thick Thin walls allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to be transported easily.

15 Chapter 23 Respiration and Excretion

16 Gas exchange in the Alveoli
The most important part of the respiratory process is the exchange of gases O2 and CO2. Within the lungs these gases are exchanged between the alveoli and the blood stream. O2 moves in the bloodstream at the same time as CO2 moves into the alveoli. How does this exchange take place? Diffusion

17 Gas exchange in the Alveoli cont.

18 Gas exchange in the Alveoli cont.
When air enters the lungs, the O2 from the air dissolve within the alveoli. The dissolved O2 then diffuses out of the alveoli into the capillaries. At the same time CO2 in the capillaries diffuse into the alveoli.

19 Transport and Exchange of Blood
For Respiration to occur every cell in your body must have O2. O2 from the lungs is carried by red blood cells to the heart and then is pumped to the rest of the body. What is the pathway called when blood is pumped between the heart and the lungs? Pulmonary Circulation

20 Breathing Breathing and respiration are related, but they are not the same process. Respiration is a chemical process. Breathing is a mechanical process that is a part of the Respiratory process. Breathing: is the process by which air enters and leaves the body. Your lungs can hold between 5-6 L of air.

21 How often do you breath? About 12 – 15 time per minute.
The organs that make breathing possible are the ribs, the rib muscles, and the diaphragm. Breathing is an involuntary action. 24hrs a day your rib muscles and diaphragm contract and relax. However sometimes the diaphragm can have a spasm, which causes you to have the hiccups.

22 Respiratory Diseases Pneumonia Bronchitis Asthma

23 Pneumonia Is one of the most common respiratory diseases.
It is the inflammation of the lungs that is usually cause by bacteria. Germs invade the lungs, as a result fluid fills the lungs, which prevents the exchange of O2 and CO2 between the alveoli and the capillaries.

24 Bronchitis and Asthma These are 2 diseases that are caused by particles trapped in the bronchioles. Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchioles. Symptoms: bad lasting cough and difficulty breathing Asthma is when the muscular walls of the bronchioles contract, which causes them to become narrow and there is less room for air.

Download ppt "Chapter 23 Respiration and Excretion"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google