2Do Now A student eats a sandwich for lunch: digested starch bloodstream cell cell organelle ATPIdentify the molecules used to digest starch.Identify the molecules produced when starch is digested.Explain why starch must be digested before it can enter the bloodstream.Identify the structure in the cell that will produce ATP from the starch building blocks.State why ATP is important to cells.
3How does the Respiratory System help maintain homeostasis? Take in oxygen (O2) for cellular respiration. This allows ATP to be produced and available for life functions.Excrete carbon dioxide (CO2) as a waste product.
4Respiratory system consists of two lungs & a system of tubes that carry air from the external environment to internal membranes (alveoli) for gas exchange.Predict the path air takes to completely enter the lungs
5The Path Air Takes WHY Air enters through the nasal cavity: Nose is adapted for warming, moistening and filtering the airBlood vessels warm cold airMucous adds moisture to dry airMucous also traps dust and pathogens (sneezed out or swallowed)
6The Path Air TakesAir passes from your nose to the pharynx , past the larynx (voice box) and into the trachea (windpipe).The trachea (windpipe) forks to form two bronchiEach bronchi branches into many bronchioles (smaller tubes)The bronchioles end in clusters of tiny sacs called Alveoli (air sacs)
8How do we get air to enter our lungs? The action of your diaphragm and surrounding muscles between your ribs enable you to breath in and out.Breathing – the alternation of inhaling and exhalingIs your diaphragm a muscle?
9How do we inhale and exhale? Diaphragm contracts and moves downwardMuscles between the ribs move the rib cage up and outwardExhale:Diaphragm relaxes and moves upMuscles between the ribs relax
10Do NowWhat is the name of the tube that air uses to travel to the lungs?What is the name of the tube that food uses to travel to the stomach?How does air enter our bodies?Why must we inhale Oxygen?Why does our body produce Carbon Dioxide?
11Inhaled Air *Air breathed in has: Lots of O2 Little CO2 Final destination of inhaled air are the Alveoli sacs in lungs.Alveoli are thin-walled sacs in the lungs surrounded by a network of capillariesCapillaries are very thin blood vessels*Air breathed in has:Lots of O2Little CO2
12Gas Exchange in Alveoli InhaleOxygen diffuses from alveoli into capillaries (blood)O2 is absorbedAlveoliExhaleCarbon Dioxide diffuses from capillaries (blood) into alveoliCO2 is excretedGases move by diffusion from high to low concentration
13Diffusion of Gases Capillaries in LUNGS Capillaries in MUSCLE High O2 Low O2High O2Low O2Why?Low CO2High CO2Low CO2High CO2BloodBloodBody / MusclesLungs
14Gas Exchange Summary Blood going towards lungs from the heart ______ in Oxygen______ in Carbon DioxideBlood going away from lungs towards the heart______ in Oxygen______ in Carbon DioxideBlood is pumped from the heart to the lungs… why?Blood goes from the lungs back to the heart… why?
15What gas do the alveoli pass into the capillaries? oxygenWhat gas do the capillaries pass into the alveoli?Carbon dioxide
16Do NowOrgan systems of the human body interact to maintain a balanced internal environment. As blood flows through certain organs of the body, the composition of the blood changes because of interactions with those organs.State one change in the composition of the blood as it flows through the respiratory system.
18Control of Respiration Breathing is usually an involuntary process Partially controlled by an internal feedback mechanism This involves signals being sent to the brain about the chemistry of your blood
19Feedback Mechanism ___ CO2 = ____ pH (acid) = _____ Breathing rate Carbon dioxide dissolves in blood increasing acidity (low pH)Signal sent rib muscles & diaphragm to contractPerson inhales to excrete CO2 and absorb O2
20Breathing and Homeostasis Keeping the internal environment of the body balancedNeed to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxideNeed to balance energy (ATP) productionWhat happens to your breathing when you run?
21Exercise and Respiration When you exercise (run, jump…dance) you breathe fasterWHY do you breathe faster?Breathe faster:Need –Bring in –Excrete –More ATP / EnergyMore OxygenExcess Carbon Dioxide
22How does the Respiratory system help maintain homeostasis?
24Failure of Homeostasis Asthma – is a severe allergic reaction in which the constriction of the bronchioles make breathing difficult
25Bronchitis – is an inflammation of the linings of the bronchial tubes Bronchitis – is an inflammation of the linings of the bronchial tubes. The air passages become swollen and clogged with mucus causing coughing and difficulty breathing
26Emphysema – is a lung disorder in which the walls of the air sacs break down and there is less respiratory surface of the lungs.Often caused by smokingA failure in the respiratory system leads to an imbalance in energy production