2 Types of Mental Health Care Professionals Counseling psychologistClinical psychologistPsychiatristPsychoanalystPsychiatric nurse practitionerClinical social workerPastoral counselor29
3 TherapyBecause of new drugs and better therapy, the U.S. went to a policy of deinstitutionalization.
4 Psychological Therapies We will look at four major forms of psychotherapies based on different theories of human nature:Psychoanalytical theoryHumanistic theoryBehavioral theoryCognitive theoryOBJECTIVE 2| Define psychoanalysis, and discuss the aims of this form of therapy.
5 Psychoanalytic Therapy FreudBring repressed feeling from the unconscious out throughhypnosisfree associationDreamInterpretationWhen energy devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts is released, the patient’s anxiety lessens.TransferenceResistance
6 Psychoanalysis: Criticisms Hard to refute because it cannot be proven or disproven.Takes a long time and is very expensive.
7 The goal of psychoanalytical therapy is a) to change maladaptive behavior to more socially acceptable behaviorb) to change negative thinking into more positive attributionsc) to attain self-actualizationd) to bring unconscious conflicts to conscious awareness and gain insight
8 Treating the therapist as though he were a very important person from one’s past, such as a parent, definesa) resistanceb) transferencec) frustrationd) reaction formation
9 Humanistic Therapy Client-Centered Therapy by Carl Rogers Aim to promote self-fulfillment by increasing self-acceptance & self awarenessFree will – clients makes the decisions and finds the solutionsActive/reflective listeningUnconditional positive regardTherapist responds with empathyGestalt Therapy by Fritz PerlsPatient experienced problems because his or her perception of reality was not consistent with what actually was occuring.
10 . Vic is encouraged to take charge of the therapy session and his therapist uses an active listening approach to mirror back the feelings he hears from him. Which therapy is most likely being described?a) client-centered therapyb) cognitive therapyc) psychodynamic therapyd) existential therapy
11 Behavioral TherapiesApplies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviorsClassical ConditioningCounterconditioning –Mary JonesAversive ConditioningSystematic desensitizationExpoure/flooding techniquesBell & Pad treatment –bed wetting(NS)Alcohol + drug (UCS) = nausea (UCR)
13 Systematic desensitization is a technique based on a) classical conditioningb) instrumental conditioningc) operant conditioningd) aversive conditioning
14 Cognitive (Thinking) Therapy Aaron BeckTeaches people new methods of thinking & acting. (change our schemas)Patient’s negative thoughts are responsible for psychological problemAlbert Ellis & Rational Emotive Therapy- anxiety is causing their beliefs
15 Cognitive Therapy for Depression Rabin et al., (1986) trained depressed patients to record positive events each day, and relate how they contributed to these events. Compared to other depressed patients, trained patients showed lower depression scores.
16 Albert Ellis Rational Emotive Therapy vigorously challenges people’s illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions; a confrontational therapyA-B-C theory of dysfunctional behaviorA – Activating eventB – BeliefC – emotional Consequence based on that belief.
17 Example of Rational Thinking A= fail a midterm examinationB=It’s unfortunate that I failed-I did not study hard enough and I must make sure that I study harder for the finalC=no consequences (no emotional disturbance)A= Fail examB= I’m stupid, I’ll never be able to pass this course and I will fail this courseC=depression
18 Evaluating Psychotherapies Within psychotherapies cognitive therapies are most widely used, followed by psychoanalytic and family/group therapies.
19 The Relative Effectiveness of Different Therapies Which psychotherapy would be most effective for treating a particular problem?DisorderTherapyDepressionBehavior, Cognition, InterpersonalAnxietyCognition, Exposure, Stress InoculationBulimiaCognitive-behaviorPhobiaBehaviorBed WettingBehavior ModificationOBJECTIVE 14| Summarize the findings on which psychotherapies are most effective for specific disorders.
20 Evaluating Alternative Therapies Lilienfeld (1998) suggests comparing scientific therapies against popular therapies through electronic means. The results of such a search are below:OBJECTIVE 15| Evaluate the effectiveness of eye movements desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and light exposure therapies.
21 Group Therapy Is cheap, effective. 1 therapist, 6-8 clients, 90 minutesIt allows people to gain insight into their own behaviors and thoughtsPeople don’t feel like they are the only one with their problem
23 The Biomedical Therapies Drug TreatmentsSurgeryElectric-shock therapy
24 Psychopharmacology is the study of drug effects on mind and behavior. Drug TherapiesPsychopharmacology is the study of drug effects on mind and behavior.OBJECTIVE 18| Define psychopharmacology, and explain how double-blind studies help researchers evaluate a drug’s effectiveness.With the advent of drugs, hospitalization in mental institutions has rapidly declined.
25 Antipsychotic DrugsClassical antipsychotics (Thorazine): Remove a number of positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia such as agitation, delusions, and hallucinations.Atypical antipsychotics (Clozapine): Remove negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia such as apathy, jumbled thoughts, concentration difficulties, and difficulties in interacting with others.OBJECTIVE 19| Describe the characteristics of antipsychotic drugs, and discuss their use in treating specific disorders.blocks receptors
26 Antidepressant DrugsAntidepressant drugs like Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) that improve the mood by elevating levels of serotonin by inhibiting reuptake.OBJECTIVE 21| Describe the characteristics of antidepressant drugs, and discuss their use in treating specific disorders.
27 Mood-Stabilizing Medications Lithium Carbonate, a common salt, has been used to stabilize manic episodes in bipolar disorders. It moderates the levels of norepinephrine and glutamate neurotransmitters.OBJECTIVE 22| Describe the use and effects of mood-stabilizing medications.
28 Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Brain StimulationElectroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)Used for severely depressed patients who do not respond to drugs. The patient is anesthetized and given a muscle relaxant.OBJECTIVE 23| Describe the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in treating severe depression, and describe some possible alternatives to ECT.
29 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Alternatives to ECTTranscranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)a pulsating magnetic coil is placed over prefrontal regions of the brain to treat depression with minimal side effects.
30 PsychosurgeryAlthough used sparingly today, about 200 such operations do take place in the US alone.OBJECTIVE 24| Summarize the history of the psychosurgical procedure known as lobotomy, and discuss the use of psychosurgery today.
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