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1 The Psychological Therapies Module 52. 2 Therapy The Psychological Therapies  Psychoanalysis  Humanistic Therapies  Behavior Therapies  Cognitive.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Psychological Therapies Module 52. 2 Therapy The Psychological Therapies  Psychoanalysis  Humanistic Therapies  Behavior Therapies  Cognitive."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Psychological Therapies Module 52

2 2 Therapy The Psychological Therapies  Psychoanalysis  Humanistic Therapies  Behavior Therapies  Cognitive Therapies  Group and Family Therapies

3 3 History of Insane Treatment Maltreatment of the insane throughout the ages. Many patients were given dangerous treatments. The Granger Collection

4 4 History of Insane Treatment Pinel in France and Dix in America founded humane movements to care for the mentally sick. Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) Dorthea Dix (1745-1826) Culver Pictures

5 5 Therapies Psychotherapy involves an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and a mental patient. Biomedical therapy uses drugs or other procedures that act on the patient’s nervous system curing him of psychological disorders. An eclectic approach uses various forms of healing techniques depending on the client’s unique problems.

6 6 Psychological Therapies We will look at four major forms of psychotherapy based on different theories on human nature: 1.Psychoanalytical theory 2. Humanistic theory 3.Behavioral theory 4.Cognitive theory

7 7 Psychoanalysis The first formal psychotherapy to emerge was psychoanalysis developed by Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud's famous couch Edmund Engleman

8 8 Psychoanalysis: Aims the aim of psychoanalysis is to bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness where the patient can deal with them. When energy devoted to id-ego-superego conflict is released, the patient’s anxiety lessens.

9 9 Psychoanalysis: Methods Dissatisfied with hypnosis, Freud developed the method of free association to unravel the unconscious mind and its conflicts. The patient lies on a couch and speaks whatever comes to his mind.

10 10 Psychoanalysis: Methods During free association, the patient expresses resistance that becomes important in the analysis of conflict-driven anxiety. Eventually the patient projects thoughts at the therapist, developing positive or negative feelings (transference) towards him.

11 11 Psychoanalysis: Criticisms 1.Psychoanalysis is hard to refute because it cannot be proven or disproven (non- scientific). 2.Psychoanalysis takes a long time and is very expensive.

12 12 Behavior Therapy Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors. There is no looking for inner causes.

13 13 Classical Conditioning Techniques Counterconditioning: a procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors. It is based on classical conditioning and includes exposure therapy and aversive conditioning.

14 14 Exposure Therapy Exposes patients to things they fear and avoid. Through repeated exposures anxiety lessens because they habituate to the things feared. The Far Side © 1986 FARWORKS. Reprinted with Permission. All Rights Reserved.

15 15 Exposure Therapy Exposure therapy involves exposing people to (fear of driving) objects in real or virtual environments. N. Rown/ The Image Works Both Photos: Bob Mahoney/ The Image Works

16 16 Systematic Desensitization A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli commonly used to treat phobias.

17 17 Aversive Conditioning A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior.

18 18 Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning procedures enable therapists to use behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded and undesired behaviors are not or are punished.

19 19 Token Economy In institutional settings therapists may create a token economy, where a patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats.

20 20 Cognitive Therapy Teaches people adaptive ways of thinking and acting based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.

21 21 Cognitive Therapy for Depression Aaron Beck (1979) suggests that depressed patients believe that they can never be happy (thinking) and thus associate minor failings (e.g. failing a test [event]) in life as major causes for their depression.

22 22 Cognitive Therapy for Depression Rabin et al., (1986) trained depressed patients to daily record positive events and relate how they contributed to these events. Compared to other depressed patients, trained patients showed lower depression scores.

23 23 Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Cognitive therapists often combine the reversal of self-defeating thinking with efforts to modify behavior. Cognitive-behavior therapy aims to alter the way people act (behavior therapy) and alter the way they think (cognitive therapy).

24 24 Group Therapy Group therapy normally consists of 6-9 people and a 90-minute session which can help more people and cost less. Clients benefit from knowing others have similar problems. © Mary Kate Denny/ PhotoEdit, Inc.

25 25 Family Therapy Family therapy treats the family as a system. Therapy guides family members toward positive relationships and improved communication.

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