2PsychotherapyAn interaction between a trained therapist and someone suffering from psychological difficulties.
3Eclectic ApproachThe most popular form of therapy- it is basically a buffet where the therapist combines techniques from different schools of psychology.
4Psychoanalysis Freud's therapy. Freud used free association, hypnosis and dream interpretation to gain insight into the client’s unconscious.
5Psychoanalytic Methods Psychotherapists use their techniques to overcome resistance by the client.The psychoanalyst wants you to become aware of the resistance and together interpret (ex. Latent content) it’s underlying meaning.
6TransferenceIn psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships.
7Humanistic TherapyFocuses of people’s potential for self-fulfillment (self-actualization).Focus on the present and future (not the past).Focus on conscious thoughts (not unconscious ones).Take responsibility for your actions- instead of blaming childhood anxieties.
8Client (Person) Centered Therapy Most widely used Humanistic technique is:Client (Person) Centered TherapyDeveloped by Carl RogersTherapist should use genuineness, acceptance and empathy to show unconditional positive regard towards their clients.
9Active Listening Central to Roger’s client-centered therapy Empathetic listening where the listener echoes, restates and clarifies.
10Behavior TherapiesTherapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.The behaviors are the problems- so we must change the behaviors.
11Classical Conditioning Techniques Counterconditioning:A behavioral therapy that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors.Two Types:
12Systematic Desensitization A type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli.How would I use systematic desensitization to reduce my fear of old women?
13Systematic Desensitization Progressive Relaxation-relax muscles while imagining arousing situationExposure Therapy-exposing people to the things they avoidFlooding-immersed in the fear until it goes away
17Aversive Conditioning What are some ways you can change the behaviors of your friends with aversive conditioning?
18Operant ConditioningToken Economy: an operant conditioning procedure that rewards a desired behavior.A patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats.
23Aaron Beck and his view of Depression Noticed that depressed people were similar in the way they viewed the world.Used cognitive therapy get people to take off the “dark sunglasses” in which they view their surroundings
25Albert Ellis-Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) One of the first cognitive therapiesA-adversityB-belief (about A)C-consequence (emotional/behavioral)teaches the client how to identify irrational and self-defeating beliefsforcefully and actively question and dispute them and replace them with more rational and self-helping ones
31Testing New DrugsWhen a new drug is released there is always too much enthusiasm.Must use a double-blind procedure to combat placebo and experimental effects.These experiments better able use to classify different types of drugs:
32Antipsychotic DrugsAntipsychotic drugs are a class of medicines used to treat psychosis and other mental and emotional conditions.These drugs are beginning to help schizophrenics with both positive and negative symptoms.These drugs (Thorazine) often have powerful side effects
33Antipsychotic DrugsClassical antipsychotics [Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)]: Remove a number of positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia such as agitation, delusions, and hallucinations.Atypical antipsychotics [Clozapine (Clozaril)]: Remove negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia such as apathy, jumbled thoughts, concentration difficulties, and difficulties in interacting with others.OBJECTIVE 19| Describe the characteristics of antipsychotic drugs, and discuss their use in treating specific disorders.
34Atypical Antipsychotic Clozapine (Clozaril) blocks receptors for dopamine and serotonin to remove the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
35Antianxiety Drugs Includes drugs like Valium and Librium. Like alcohol, they depress nervous system activity.Most widely abused drugs.Do they really solve the problem?
36Antianxiety DrugsAntianxiety drugs (Xanax and Ativan) depress the central nervous system and reduce anxiety and tension by elevating the levels of the Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter.OBJECTIVE 20| Describe the characteristics of antianxiety drugs, and discuss their use in treating specific disorders.
37Antidepressant Drugs Lift you up out of depression. Most increase the neurotransmitter Norepinephrine.
38Prozac, Paxil ZoloftWork by blocking serotonin reuptake.
39Mood-Stabilizing Medications Lithium Carbonate, a common salt, has been used to stabilize manic episodes in bipolar disorders. It moderates the levels of norepinephrine and glutamate neurotransmitters.OBJECTIVE 22| Describe the use and effects of mood-stabilizing medications.
40Electroconvulsive Therapy Biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
41Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Brain StimulationElectroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)ECT is used for severely depressed patients who do not respond to drugs. The patient is anesthetized and given a muscle relaxant. Patients usually get a 100 volt shock that relieves them of depression.OBJECTIVE 23| Describe the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in treating severe depression, and describe some possible alternatives to ECT.
42PsychosurgerySurgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.Egas Moniz developed the lobotomy in the 1930s.Ice pick like instrument through the eye sockets cutting the links between the frontal lobes and the emotional control centers.