11 Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s SubfieldsBasic Researchpure science that aims to increase the knowledge baseApplied Researchscientific study that aims to solve practical problems Examples?
12 Contemporary Psychology Clinical Psychologybranch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disordersPsychiatrya branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorderspracticed by physicians who sometimes use medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychotherapy
13 Why Study Psychology?Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses
14 Why Study Psychology? Hindsight Bias Overconfidence we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen itthe “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenonOverconfidencewe tend to think we know more than we do
15 The Scientific Attitude Critical Thinkingthinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusionsexamines assumptionsdiscerns hidden valuesevaluates evidenceassesses conclusionsThe Amazing Randi--Skeptic
16 The Scientific Method Theory Hypothesis an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observationsHypothesisa testable predictionoften implied by a theory
18 The Scientific Method Operational Definition a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variablesexample-intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
19 The Scientific Method Replication repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstancesusually with different participants in different situations
20 DescriptionPsychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation
21 Description Case Study observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principalsIs language uniquely human?
22 DescriptionSurveytechnique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of peopleusually by questioning a representative, random sample of people
24 Description Population Random Sample all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a studyRandom Samplea sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
25 Description Naturalistic Observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
26 (positive or negative) CorrelationCorrelation Coefficienta statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the otherIndicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Correlationcoefficientr = +.37Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)
27 Correlation Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationships or or could cause(1)Low self-esteemDepressionor(2)Depressioncould causeLow self-esteemorLow self-esteem(3)Distressing eventsor biologicalpredispositioncould causeandDepression
28 Illusory Correlation Illusory Correlation the perception of a relationship where none existsConceiveDo not conceiveAdoptDo notadoptdisconfirmingevidenceconfirming
29 Two Random SequencesYour chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960.
30 Experimentation Experiment an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable)by random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors
31 Experimentation Double-Blind Procedure Placebo both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebocommonly used in drug-evaluation studiesPlaceboan inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent
32 Experimentation Experimental Condition Control Condition the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variableControl Conditionthe condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatmentserves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
33 Experimentation Random Assignment assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chanceminimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups
34 Experimentation Independent Variable Dependent Variable the experimental factor that is manipulatedthe variable whose effect is being studiedDependent Variablethe experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variablein psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process