Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Psychology! Ms. Zendrian. What is Psychology? Studying psychology helps us to understand who we are, where our thoughts come from, our actions,"— Presentation transcript:
What is Psychology? Studying psychology helps us to understand who we are, where our thoughts come from, our actions, and how we understand the world around us. Psychology- the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Psychology is the study of the brain! The brain tells us when we are hungry, determines out sleeping and dreaming patterns, and allows use to express and control our emotions
Where did psychology come from? 300 BC- Aristotle- theorized about learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception, personality Wilhelm Wundt- German- launched the first psychological laboratory Other important psychologists: Charles Darwin, Ivan Pavlov, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, and William James
Psychology as a study of behavior B. F. Skinner- “the scientific study of observable behavior” Behaviorists study how people react Humanistic psychology- emphasizes the importance of current environmental influence on our growth, and the importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
Is it Nature or is it Nurture? Psychology’s big historic issue: nature-nurture Do human traits develop through experiences or do we come equipped with them?
Biopsychosocial Approach Biopsychosocial approach- an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis Psychology’s varied perspectives ask different questions and have their own limits One perspective may stress the biological, psychological, or socio- cultural level more than another
What do different psychologists do? Biological psychologists Developmental psychologists Cognitive psychologists Personality psychologists Social psychologists
Psychologists or Psychiatrists? Psychologists use the science of behavior and mental processes to better understand why people think, feel, and act as they do Psychiatrists are medical doctors who are licenses to prescribe drugs and treat psychological disorders
Hindsight Bias and Overconfidence “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it We tend to be more confident than correct Hindsight bias and overconfidence lead us to over estimate our intuition
The Scientific Method and Psychology People are naturally curious about the world around them When an experiment is conducted, there is a community that checks and rechecks the findings and conclusions Critical thinking- examines assumptions, discerns hidden value evidence, and assess conclusions Theory- an explanation using integrated set of principles that organized observations and predicts behaviors or events
Scientific Theory A good theory must have a hypothesis Operational definitions- a statements of the procedures used to define research variables Replication- repeating the essence of research study, typically with different participants
Different types of research methods Case study Survey Random sample Naturalist Observation
Correlations A positive correlation- indicates a direct relationships meaning that two things increase together or decrease together A negative correlation- indicates an inverse relationship as one thing increases the other decreases Correlation DOES NOT equal causation! Illusory correlation- the perception of a relationship where none exist
Experiments Experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental processes (the dependent variable) No single experiment is conclusive Independent variables- the experimental factor that is manipulated Dependent variables- the outcome factor
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