2Domestication of plants and animals probably begun by the Natufian: NEOLITHIC Period:Earliest known development of Neolithic culture was in SW Asia between 8000 B.C. and 6000 B.C.Domestication of plants and animals probably begun by the Natufian:wheat, barley and millet, and raising of cattle, sheep, goats and pigsIn the Nile River Valley the Neolithic culture of the Naqada (a town on the west bank of the Nile) lived in sizable settlements by about 4,000 BC and produced decorated pottery and figurines made from clay and ivory which indicate they were a war-like people. Naqada artifacts from 3,300 BC show further development both in terms of culture and technology, with evidence of irrigation systems and more advanced burial sites.In the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys, the Neolithic culture of the Middle East developed into the urban civilizations by 3500 B.C.Between 6000 B.C. and 2000 B.C. Neolithic culture spread through Europe, the Nile valley (Egypt), the Indus valley (India), and the Huang He valley (N China).
4Use wild animals and plants for food Hunting & GatheringLifestyle Advantages DisadvantagesUse wild animals and plants for foodMigrate seasonallyLive in family or tribal groupsLand supplies what is needed.Movement easier when food is scarce.Life encourages cooperation & language skills.Special weapons/tools for hunting/digging plants.People are always searching for new food sources.It is more difficult to store food.People must carry everything along when traveling.Only simple social organization was possible.Patterns of Living: Paleolithic Period to the Neolithic Revolution
5Raise herds of tame animals Settled CommunitiesLifestyle Advantages DisadvantagesRaise herds of tame animalsPlant seeds and raise cropsLive in permanent settlementsCrops provide a reliable food supply.Population grows as life becomes more complex.Societies become more complex.Trade increases and commerce develops.Division of labor allows workers to specialize.Crop failures due to weather or pests cause famines.Floods, fire, or even raiders could destroy villages.Disease spreads easily when people live together.Patterns of Living: Paleolithic Period to the Neolithic Revolution
6Scenario…You are approximately 30 years old. You are married and raising a family. Both you and your spouse are self-employed. The wife has to work an average of only 2 hours per day, while the husband works a maximum of 5 hours a day. This labor is sufficient to provide for your family’s basic needs of food, clothing and shelter. All of your remaining time can be devoted to recreational, social and religious affairs.Would you exchange this situation for jobs requiring at least 10 hours of labor a day? Although the new jobs require more work, they have a potential to produce a higher standard of living. Please give reasons for your decision.
7Civilization: What is it? Here are three textbook definitions ... Civilization is a form of human culture in which many people live in urban centers, have mastered the art of smelting metals, and have developed a method of writing.The first civilizations began in cities, which were larger, more populated, and more complex in their political, economic and social structure than Neolithic villages.One definition of civilization requires that a civilized people have a sense of history -- meaning that the past counts in the present.
8Attributes of Civilizations Within the culture, the people……lived in cities or regions often organized as states or city-states.…developed specialized labor/excelled in arts & crafts.…made advances in science and technology.…developed complex economic, government, social, and cultural systems.…developed a writing system or an effective means of communication. **Not all sources include this as a critical attribute.