2Clues from Archaeology Archaeologists use fossil bones, tools, and other artifacts to learn about the earliest people.The fossil record of early humans shows that brain size and tool making ability grew over the centuries.The “Old Stone Age,” the very beginning of tool making, began about 2.5 million years ago and lasted until around 10,000 B.C.
3The Ice AgeDuring the Ice Age, about 2.5 million years ago until about 12,000 years ago, glaciers advanced and stretched over large areas of the earth.During the colder periods of the Ice Age, early humans had to learn to make shelter, fire and clothing.As water froze, ocean levels dropped, allowing land bridges to arise and enabling early humans to colonize every continent except Antarctica.
4Making ToolsTools enable people to take advantage of a wide range of natural resources.The earliest toolmakers used the same tool for many purposes. By the time of Homo sapiens, toolmakers made tools for specific purposes.
5The ability to make tools was a key factor in the survival of early humans.
6Using LanguageScientists believe that as brain size increased, so did early humans’ ability to create and use language.Language allowed early humans to share information, work together, and to pass on knowledge and traditions.
7Early Fire UsersHomo heidelbergensis used fire to live in cold regions, cook food, and to scare off dangerous animals.Homo heidelbergensis were hunter-gatherers. This means they hunted wild animals and gathered wild plants for food.
8For about 7,000 years, Homo heidelbergensis lived in groups of people that traveled over the year to find food.
9The Neanderthals: Community Builders Neanderthals: lived in Europe in large groups of people.Neanderthals probably had a strong sense of community and took care of one another.
10Neanderthals seem to be the earliest people concerned with life after death.
11Cro-Magnons: Modern Humans The Cro-Magnons looked like modern people and lived like modern hunter-gatherers.The Cro-Magnons made advanced tools such as spear throwers.
12The Cro-Magnons carved sculptures and painted cave walls and ceilings.
13Living in Settled Communities People eventually stopped wandering in groups and settled down in one place.The discovery of agriculture led to a surplus of food and a rise in population.
14Taming Animals and Sowing Seeds By carefully selecting and sowing seeds of productive plants, people influenced the plants in their environment.As people tamed animals, they were able to herd them and use them as a renewable resource.
15Farming as a Way of LifeBy 7000B.C., people had developed agriculture, growing plants and raising animals for food.Agriculture allowed farmers to grow surplus food for trading, and to support more people on small plots of land.Agriculture allowed people to specialize in different jobs, leading to the beginnings of village life.
16A Large Neolithic TownCatal Huyuk is the largest Neolithic town found in the Middle East so far.People lived in houses, farmed, and made arts and crafts.
17Trade in the Neolithic World Archaeologists have found evidence that Neolithic villages traded a variety of items, including tools and food.Trade enabled villages to survive by supplying items they could not provide for themselves.
18A City on the PlainAt the city of Ur, people began to dig canals from the riverbeds to irrigate--supply water to– their fields.Irrigation allowed farmers to control water and the surplus of food.
19Features of a CityIn cities, people learned to get organized, by leaders, to work together.As labor began to get more specialized, many different kinds of jobs were created.
20Cities developed different social groups, with some people richer and more powerful than others. People in cities were able to develop long-distance trade.
21An Early CivilizationA civilization is complex society with a stable food supply, specialization of labor, a system of government, social levels, and a highly developed culture.Many early civilizations around the world grew up near river valleys.