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Properties Chapter 1 Physical – characteristics Physical – characteristics Quantitative: measurements using numbers and units.Quantitative: measurements.

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Presentation on theme: "Properties Chapter 1 Physical – characteristics Physical – characteristics Quantitative: measurements using numbers and units.Quantitative: measurements."— Presentation transcript:

1 Properties Chapter 1 Physical – characteristics Physical – characteristics Quantitative: measurements using numbers and units.Quantitative: measurements using numbers and units. Mass (grams) Mass (grams) Volume (liters) Volume (liters) Length (meters) Length (meters) Temperature (Kelvin or Celsius) Temperature (Kelvin or Celsius) Pressure (kPa, atm, or mmHg) Pressure (kPa, atm, or mmHg) Density (g/ml) Density (g/ml) Qualitative: descriptions using the five senses.Qualitative: descriptions using the five senses. Color Color Texture Texture Smell Smell Chemical - behaviors Chemical - behaviors ToxicityToxicity FlammabilityFlammability CorrosiveCorrosive RadioactivityRadioactivity

2 Properties of Acids & Bases Chapter 14 AcidsBases Taste Sour H+ > OH- pH below 7 pOH above 7 Conducts Electricity Corrosive Reacts with Base to form Salt H 2 O Turns Indicators Red Taste Bitter OH- > H+ pH above 7 pOH below 7 Conducts Electricity Corrosive Reacts with Acid to form Salt H 2 O Turns Indicators Blue Feels Slippery

3 Nitric Acid Old fashioned name: Aqua Fortis Old fashioned name: Aqua Fortis strong waterstrong water Only acid that reacts with copper. Only acid that reacts with copper. The acid in acid rain. The acid in acid rain. Highly Corrosive Highly Corrosive Poisonous Poisonous

4 Properties: Metals & Nonmetals Chapter 5 MetalsNonMetals Mostly Solids (Hg is only liquid) Hard (Dense) Lustrous (Shiny) Malleable (Bend, Dent, Flatten) Ductile (Stretches into Wires) Great Conductors of Electricity 80% of Periodic Table 7A & 8A Gases (Br is only liquid) All others are Solids (Iodine) Solids are Brittle 7A Gases are diatomic molecules 8A Gases are unreactive (stable) Poor Conductors of Electricity 20% of Periodic Table

5 Lab Equipment Chapter 2 Polystyrene Bottle (type of plastic) Polystyrene Bottle (type of plastic) Scale measures mass in grams. Scale measures mass in grams. Graduated Cylinder measures volume in milliliters. Graduated Cylinder measures volume in milliliters. Beaker is best for mixing solutions. Beaker is best for mixing solutions. Flask is best for storing solutions. Flask is best for storing solutions.

6 Types of Chemical Reactions Chapter 8 SynthesisA + B C SynthesisA + B C DecompositionC A + B DecompositionC A + B Single DisplacementA + BC B + AC Single DisplacementA + BC B + AC Double DisplacementAB + CD AD + CB Double DisplacementAB + CD AD + CB CombustionC x H y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O CombustionC x H y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O NeutralizationAcid + Base Salt + H 2 O NeutralizationAcid + Base Salt + H 2 O Redox ReactionsOxidation and Reduction Redox ReactionsOxidation and Reduction

7 Phase Labels Chapter 10 Solid (s) Solid (s) Liquid (l) Liquid (l) Gas (g) Gas (g) Aqueous (aq) = dissolved in water Aqueous (aq) = dissolved in water

8 Structural Formulas Chapter 6 Ionic Bonds – transfer of electrons from cation to anion. Ionic Bonds – transfer of electrons from cation to anion. Goal is to have 8 valence electrons to be stable like a noble gas.Goal is to have 8 valence electrons to be stable like a noble gas. No lines connecting the atoms.No lines connecting the atoms. Write the ions charges.Write the ions charges. Molecular Bonds – share electrons between two nonmetal anions. Molecular Bonds – share electrons between two nonmetal anions. Line connects the atoms, represents a shared pair of electrons.Line connects the atoms, represents a shared pair of electrons. Do not label charges.Do not label charges. Creates a VSEPR shape: linear, bent, triginal planar, pyramidal, tetrahedral, or complex.Creates a VSEPR shape: linear, bent, triginal planar, pyramidal, tetrahedral, or complex. Can be polar or nonpolar depending on the differences in electronegativity. (Periodic Trends - Chapter 5)Can be polar or nonpolar depending on the differences in electronegativity. (Periodic Trends - Chapter 5)

9 Nomenclature Chapter 7 Roman Numerals – represents the charge on a B metal. Roman Numerals – represents the charge on a B metal. Common Names – Sodium Hydroxide is lye. Nitric Acid was once known as Aqua Fortis. Common Names – Sodium Hydroxide is lye. Nitric Acid was once known as Aqua Fortis. Nonmetals – end in ide. Nonmetals – end in ide. Metals – just say the name. Metals – just say the name. Molecules – Molecular Compounds (NM,NM) Molecules – Molecular Compounds (NM,NM) Formula Units – Ionic Compounds (M,NM) Formula Units – Ionic Compounds (M,NM) Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic Ions

10 Mole Review Chapter 7 1Mole = 1Mole = Molar MassMolar Mass 6.02x10 23 particles6.02x10 23 particles 22.4L of a gas at STP22.4L of a gas at STP Standard Temp 0K = 273˚C Standard Temp 0K = 273˚C Standard Pressure Standard Pressure 101.3kPa = 1atm = 760mmHg = 760torr101.3kPa = 1atm = 760mmHg = 760torr

11 More Review Metric Conversions (1L=100ml, 1kg=1000g) Metric Conversions (1L=100ml, 1kg=1000g) Density = Mass/Volume Density = Mass/Volume of H2O = 1g/1ml (1ml=1cm 3 )of H2O = 1g/1ml (1ml=1cm 3 ) TemperatureK = C TemperatureK = C Conservation of Matter and Energy Conservation of Matter and Energy Limiting Reactants (Chapter 9) Limiting Reactants (Chapter 9) PV=nRTR=8.31kPa*L/mol*K (Chapter 11) PV=nRTR=8.31kPa*L/mol*K (Chapter 11) Molarity= moles solute/liters solution (Chapter 12) Molarity= moles solute/liters solution (Chapter 12) Equilibrium & Keq (Constant) (Chapter 18) Equilibrium & Keq (Constant) (Chapter 18)

12 Fume Hood Keeps dangerous odors out of the classroom. Keeps dangerous odors out of the classroom.

13 Parafilm Wax Paper – Lab Grade Wax Paper – Lab Grade Can Stretch Can Stretch Bubbles up if gas builds up in bottle. Bubbles up if gas builds up in bottle. Relieves pressure so bottle does not expand and potentially break. Relieves pressure so bottle does not expand and potentially break.

14 Nitrogen Dioxide Brown, Highly Corrosive Gas Brown, Highly Corrosive Gas Lung Irritant, Respiratory Infections Lung Irritant, Respiratory Infections Produced by factories, volcanoes, cars, etc. Produced by factories, volcanoes, cars, etc. Combine with other molecules to produce smog. Combine with other molecules to produce smog.

15 Safety Goggles Goggles Acid – rinse graduated cylinder thoroughly. Acid – rinse graduated cylinder thoroughly. Rinse paper towels that were used to clean up spilled acid. Rinse paper towels that were used to clean up spilled acid. Loosen the cap on the bottle containing conversion reaction one. Loosen the cap on the bottle containing conversion reaction one. Use the fume hood. Use the fume hood. Wash your hands before leaving. Wash your hands before leaving.

16 Reaction Indicators Chapter 8 Bubbles, Smoke, Gas, Bubbles, Smoke, Gas, Heat, Light production. Temperature change Temperature change not create by equipment. Color change not created with dyes. Color change not created with dyes. The formation of a precipitate (solid). The formation of a precipitate (solid). Odor change. Odor change.

17 Neutralization Reaction Chapter 15 Acid and Base create salt and water. Acid and Base create salt and water. Hydrogen ion concentration would equal the hydroxide concentration to make water.H + + OH - H 2 O Hydrogen ion concentration would equal the hydroxide concentration to make water.H + + OH - H 2 O Neutralization Formula: N A V A =N B V B Neutralization Formula: N A V A =N B V B

18 Balancing Chapter 8 Conservation of Mass Conservation of Mass Use whole number coefficients to balance the atoms on both sides of the equation. Use whole number coefficients to balance the atoms on both sides of the equation. Never change the correct compound formulas subscripts. Never change the correct compound formulas subscripts.

19 Acids Chapter 14 Sour, corrosive, good conductors of electricity. Sour, corrosive, good conductors of electricity. High Hydrogen Ion Concentration: Arrhenius. High Hydrogen Ion Concentration: Arrhenius. Hydrogen Donor: Bronsted-Lowry. Hydrogen Donor: Bronsted-Lowry. Electron Acceptor: Lewis. Electron Acceptor: Lewis. Neutralized by Bases to form Salt Water Neutralized by Bases to form Salt Water Strong Acid = Weak Bonds, Easily Ionized Strong Acid = Weak Bonds, Easily Ionized Weak Acid = Strong Bonds, Hard to Ionize Weak Acid = Strong Bonds, Hard to Ionize Naming: Naming: Hydro-----ic (Hydrogen + NM)Hydro-----ic (Hydrogen + NM) -----ic (Hydrogen + Polyatomic ending in ate)-----ic (Hydrogen + Polyatomic ending in ate) ous (Hydrogen + Polyatomic ending in ite)------ous (Hydrogen + Polyatomic ending in ite)

20 Bases Chapter 14 Bitter, slippery, corrosive, good conductor of electricity. Bitter, slippery, corrosive, good conductor of electricity. High Hydroxide Ion Concentration: Arrhenius. High Hydroxide Ion Concentration: Arrhenius. Hydrogen Acceptor: Bronsted-Lowry. Hydrogen Acceptor: Bronsted-Lowry. Electron Donor: Lewis. Electron Donor: Lewis. Neutralized by Acids to form Salt Water Neutralized by Acids to form Salt Water Strong Base = Weak Bonds, Easily Ionized Strong Base = Weak Bonds, Easily Ionized Weak Base = Strong Bonds, Hard to Ionize Weak Base = Strong Bonds, Hard to Ionize Also called alkali substances. Also called alkali substances. NaOH is commonly known as Lye.NaOH is commonly known as Lye.

21 Concentration Chapter 12 Molarity = moles of solute / liters of solution = Molal concentration = M Molarity = moles of solute / liters of solution = Molal concentration = M M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 Dilutions Formula. Example: HCl from the factory is 12M. It is diluted with water to create a 6M solution. M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 Dilutions Formula. Example: HCl from the factory is 12M. It is diluted with water to create a 6M solution. When making dilutions always add the acid or base to the water. When making dilutions always add the acid or base to the water. Molality = moles of solute / kg of solution = molal concemtration = m Molality = moles of solute / kg of solution = molal concemtration = m

22 Litmus Paper Chapter 14 Acid/Base Indicator Acid/Base Indicator Blue Paper is turned Red by Acid Blue Paper is turned Red by Acid Red Paper is turned Blue by Base Red Paper is turned Blue by Base Litmus is a chemical which red in the presence of an acid and blue in the presence of a base. Litmus is a chemical which red in the presence of an acid and blue in the presence of a base.

23 Water Bath Used for regulating the temperature of substances at lower than 100˚C. Used for regulating the temperature of substances at lower than 100˚C. Used to heat substances, which can't be heated directly. Used to heat substances, which can't be heated directly.

24 Reaction Rates Chapter 17 Temperature Temperature Pressure (of gas reactions only) Pressure (of gas reactions only) Concentrations of Reactants Concentrations of Reactants Surface Area/Particle Size Surface Area/Particle Size Catalyst/Inhibitor Catalyst/Inhibitor

25 Temperature Chapter 17 Temperature changes the rate of a reaction. Temperature changes the rate of a reaction. Increase temperature and the reaction proceeds faster. (hot water bath) Increase temperature and the reaction proceeds faster. (hot water bath) For every 10°C that the temperature is increased, the reaction rate doubles. For every 10°C that the temperature is increased, the reaction rate doubles. Decrease temperature and the reaction slows down. (ice water bath) Decrease temperature and the reaction slows down. (ice water bath) Temperature changes do affect the pH. Therefore, pH must be measured at room temperature (RT). Temperature changes do affect the pH. Therefore, pH must be measured at room temperature (RT).

26 Catalyst Speeds up a chemical reaction Speeds up a chemical reaction Does not get used up. Does not get used up. Neither a reactant or a product. Neither a reactant or a product. Written above the arrow in a chemical reaction. Written above the arrow in a chemical reaction. Lowers the activation energy. Lowers the activation energy. Biological catalyst is an enzyme. Biological catalyst is an enzyme. Chapter 17

27 Energy of the Reaction Chapter 16 Exothermic – Exothermic – reaction produces energy. Reaction feels warm/hot. Endothermic – Endothermic – reaction absorbs energy. Reaction feels cool/cold.

28 Filter Paper Fold in half once. Fold in half once. Fold in half again. Fold in half again. Open one pocket. Open one pocket.

29 Decant Means to pour the liquid (supernatant) off leaving the solid (precipitate) behind. Means to pour the liquid (supernatant) off leaving the solid (precipitate) behind. In this lab we always want the solid. The liquid is the waste material. In this lab we always want the solid. The liquid is the waste material. In other labs, the liquid In other labs, the liquid (supernatant) might be what we want to keep. what we want to keep. The solid is the pellet. The solid is the pellet.

30 Centrifuge A piece of equipment that spins the solution in extremely fast circles. Ex: 3500rev/min. A piece of equipment that spins the solution in extremely fast circles. Ex: 3500rev/min. Never open the lid while the centrifuge is still spinning. Never open the lid while the centrifuge is still spinning. Useful for separating liquids and solids. Useful for separating liquids and solids. If the solid is more dense than the liquid it forms a pellet at the bottom of the tube. If the solid is more dense than the liquid it forms a pellet at the bottom of the tube. The liquid above the pellet is known as the supernatant. The liquid above the pellet is known as the supernatant.

31 Vortex Also called an Agitator. Also called an Agitator. Used to help mix substances. Used to help mix substances.

32 Drying Oven Warm oven used to quickly and completely evaporate water off of our product. Warm oven used to quickly and completely evaporate water off of our product. When we get our final measurements, When we get our final measurements, we only want copper, not the acetone and excess water.

33 Percent Yield Chapter 9 Actual Yield/Theoretical Yield x 100 Actual Yield/Theoretical Yield x 100 Amount of Cu recovered/ the original amount of Cu you started with multiplied by 100. Amount of Cu recovered/ the original amount of Cu you started with multiplied by 100. Percent Error = 100% - % Yield Percent Error = 100% - % Yield % Error + % Yield = 100% % Error + % Yield = 100%

34 Homoethermic Warm-blooded. Warm-blooded. Requires lots of food. Requires lots of food. Can live in a variety of climates. Can live in a variety of climates.


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