2What are Acids and Bases? Warm UpTitle your CB-What are Acids and Bases?Write everything you know about the properties of acids and bases.Why are they important?
3Acids and Bases are part of your everyday lives! Acids Bases
4DefinitionAn acid is a compound that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water.A base is a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.
5Properties of Acids and Bases Sour tasteNeutralize basesRelease hydrogen gas when added to an active metalAqueous solutions of acids are electrolytes (conduct electricity)BasesBitter tasteFeels slipperyNeutralize acidsAqueous solutions of bases are electrolytes (conduct electricity)
6What do you think?1. Based on the properties of the following, predict if the product is an acid or base.ShampooLemonadeWindexGatorade2. Do you think Draino is an acid or a base? Why?
7Warm UpThings I am collecting: Article Analysis Chapt 12.1 Notes Molarity Packet ReviewThings I have already collected: KNO3 Lab Solubility Rule Lab Solubility Curve WS (not the one with water)
8What is happening in the tube? Rainbow Tube DemoWhat is happening in the tube?
9WATERWater molecules are highly polar and are in continuous motion when at room temperature. When collisions between water molecules occur, a hydrogen ion can transfer from one water molecule to another. This is called the self-ionization of water.
10Self Ionization of Water Water molecules collide with one another to cause the self-ionization reaction represented by this equation:2H2O H3O+ + OH-It is a reversible reaction so the equation is usually written with the arrows going in both directions:2H2O H3O+ + OH-
11Self Ionization of Water In pure water the H+ and OH- are produced in a 1:1 ratio.[H+] = [OH-]A neutral solution is when [H+] = [OH-]Water is a Neutral Solution!
12Self Ionization of Water In any aqueous solution [H+] and [OH-] are interdependent.[H+] increases then [OH-] decreases.[H+] decreases then [OH-] increases.This is an example of Le Chatelier’s Principle.
13Le Chatelier’s Principle EquilibriumH2O H+ + OH-If a stress is applied to a system in a dynamic equilibrium, the system changes to relieve the stress.
14Le Chatelier’s Principle If we add more reactants the system looks like this:However, the system will correct itself and make more products to balance the system.
15Le Chatelier’s Principle Similarly, if we add more products to the system, it will look like this:But a system that is in equilibrium will shift again to relieve stress:
16Where X are the coefficients in the Equilibrium ConstantFor every reaction there is a mathematical relationship between the reactants and products.Keq = [Products]x[Reactants]xWhere X are the coefficients in thebalanced equation.
17Example Write the equilibrium constant for the following reaction. H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2HOH
184/19 Warm Up- Look through Acid/Base Notes! What are the properties of acids?What are properties of bases?We know that there was some crazy equilibrium crap (did I just say that?)…We also know that there is a relationship between [H+] and [OH-] ions.Last-- we know that there is a pH scale.Hmmmmmm……. How does it all fit together?
19Lets start with the pH scale pH is a logarithmic function based on the [H+]
20KW = [H+] [OH-] = 1.0 X 10-14 (mol/L)2 The first step in pulling it all together is knowing the Ion-Product Constant for Water KWThe product of the concentrations of the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water is KW and equals 1.0 X (mol/L)2KW = [H+] [OH-] = 1.0 X (mol/L)2[H+] = 1.0 X 10-7 mol/L [OH-] = 1.0 X 10-7 mol/L
21Knowing Kw and the concentration of one of the variables, we can determine the other! Go to the WS
22Calculating pHKeeping in mind that pH is a logarithmic function, we can calculate the pH using the following equation.pH = -log [H+]
23Try these! Determine the pH. Get your calculators out!! [H+]= 1.0 x 10-7[H+]= 1.0 x 10-5[H+]= 1.0 x 10-9[H+]= 2.5 x 10-9[H+]= 1.6 x 10-5[H+]= 3.7 x 10-9
24How did you do?[H+]= 1.0 x pH= 7[H+]= 1.0 x pH= 5[H+]= 1.0 x pH= 9[H+]= 2.5 x pH= 8.6[H+]= 1.6 x pH= 4.8[H+]= 3.7 x pH= 8.4
25What is pOH pOH is a logarithmic function of the [OH-]. It works exactly the same as pH.pOH = -log[OH-]
26What is the relationship between pH and pOH?? pH + pOH = 14Yea!
27Calculations Columns 7-8 are the calculations we learned on Friday. Columns 9 and 10- Concentration is in mol/L. Calculate how many moles in 2L of solution.
29Adding Acid to Water HCl H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) The acid adds more H+ increasing the [H+] in the water. Therefore in any acid solution the [H+] will be greater than the [OH-].[H+] > 1.0 X mol/L[H+] > mol/L
30NaOH Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq) Adding Base to WaterNaOH Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)The base adds more OH- increasing the [OH-] in the water. Therefore in any basic solution the [OH-] will be greater than the [H+].[H+] < 1.0 X mol/L[H+] < mol/L
31pH ScaleThe pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration.pH = -log [H+]Neutral pH = 7 [H+] = 1.0 X mol/LAcidic pH < 7 [H+] > 1.0 X mol/LBasic pH > 7 [H+] < 1.0 X mol/L
32pH ScaleExplain that pH scale is an exponential model.
34IndicatorA substance that “indicates” the pH of a solution by changing color. Red Litmus Paper Blue Litmus Paper Universal Indicator Paper Red Cabbage Juice
35Household pH LabYou will be testing the pH of many solutions that you use every day.1. What do you think?2. Cabbage Juice- 10 mL juice, add a few drops of sample.2. Litmus Paper– Use blue and red!(example: Red turns Blue)3. Universal pH paper- record color and approximate pH.4. Actual pH- from meter (I will give you these).
36Arrhenius DefinitionAn acid is a compound that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water.A base is a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.