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Solutions, Acids, and Bases

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1 Solutions, Acids, and Bases
Chapter 7

2 Parts of a solution Solute
The substance that is dissolved into the solution. examples: Sugar in kool-aid Salt in salt water CO2 in pop Solvent The substance that does the dissolving in a solution. examples: Most common is water.

3 Dissolving Three ways to dissolve a solute in a solvent: Dissociation
Dispersion Ionization

4 Conductivity Many solutions can conduct an electric current if electrolytes are present. (ions) Electrolytes = substances that will conduct an electric current when dissolved. Ex. NaCl, KCl, MgBr2

5 Freezing Point Depression
Lowering the freezing point of water by the addition of a solute ex. salt. Used on icy roads in winter Ice-cream

6 Boiling point elevation
The addition of a solute to a liquid solvent will usually raise the boiling point of the solvent. Adding salt to boil water when cooking

7 Concentration Concentrated
A large amount of solute dissolved in a solvent Dilute A little bit of solute dissolved in a solvent

8 Saturation A solution that contains all the solute it can possibly hold at a given temperature is said to be saturated. Unsaturated = contains less solute than it can possibly hold Supersaturated = a solution that holds more solute than it should at a given temperature.

9 Supersaturation example:
Sodium acetate in water. Used in commercial hand warmers.


11 Insoluble A substance that will NOT dissolve in water.

12 “Like dissolves like” Nonpolar solvents will dissolve nonpolar solutes. examples: benzene & acetone Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes

13 2 factors that affect solubility:
1.Temperature Increase in temp generally increases solubility of a solid in a liquid Increase in temp decreases solubility of a gas in a liquid. 2. Pressure Usually has little, if any, effect on solid and liquid solutes. Increase in pressure increases the solubility of a gas in a liquid.

14 Specific concentration
Can be defined as percent by volume or percent by mass Example: 3% hydrogen peroxide or 25% fruit juice.

15 Acids Very important chemicals in everyday life processes.

16 Properties of acids: Sour taste (never taste a chemical)
All contain hydrogen Also called “proton donors” React with active metals to produce hydrogen gas. Zn HCl ZnCl H2

17 Indicators Chemicals used to identify acids and bases by changing color. ACIDS: Litmus paper (blue to red) Phenolphthalein (colorless) Methyl Orange (orange to red) Bromothymol Blue (changes to yellow)

18 Common acids Sulfuric (H2SO4) used in car batteries
Nitric (HNO3) also fertilizers Hydrochloric (HCl) stomach acid Carbonic (H2CO3) carbonated drinks Acetic (HC2H3O2) vinegar

19 Bases Also very important in everyday processes.

20 Properties of Bases: Taste bitter; feel slippery
Contain hydroxide (OH) ions. Known as “proton acceptors” Phenolphthalein turns bright pink Red litmus paper turns blue Bromothymol blue turns blue Methyl orange turns yellow

21 Common bases: Sodium hydroxide NaOH making soap; drain cleaners
Potassium hydroxide KOH battery electrolyte Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 making plaster and drywall Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2antacids

22 Solutions of acids and bases
pH scale (page 277) A numerical scale developed to measure the relative strengths of acids and bases Ranges from 0 to 14 0 is the strongest acid 14 is the strongest base.

23 What happens when an acid and a base combine?
Always forms water and a salt. Salt = ionic compound formed when a positive ion of a base combines with a negative ion of an acid. Neutralization. These are double replacement reactions.

24 What determines if an acid is classified as “strong” or weak?
Which is stronger? 1 M acetic acid or 1M hydrochloric acid? Strength is determined by how well the acid or base dissociates into solution. Strong acids and strong bases are good electrolytes.

25 Strong and Weak vs. Dilute and Concentrated
Strong and weak refer to how well an acid or base create ions in solution. If a large percentage of the molecules break up, then it is strong. If not, it is weak. Dilute and Concentrated refer to the percentage of the solution that is made up of the solute.

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