Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Notes: Solutions, Acids and Bases"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 6 Notes: Solutions, Acids and Bases Chapters 22: SolutionsSection 1: How Solutions FormMrs. Chilton
2 A. Solutions and Other Mixtures All matter is either a pure substance or a mixtureTypes of mixturesHomogeneous = solution;same composition throughoutHeterogeneous = not the samecomposition throughoutPure substancesElementsCompounds
3 B. Solutions Solution is a homogeneous mixture Made up of solute and solventSolute = what is dissolvedSolvent = substance doing the dissolvingMost common solvent?Water! Why?
4 B. Solution ExamplesKoolAidUnsweet teaSweetened teaSaltwater
5 C. Dissolving Molecules are constantly in motion according to… Kinetic Theory of MotionWhen particles collide, energy is transferredWhen ionic compounds dissolve in water, ions separate in solutionExample: NaCl in water becomes Na+ and Cl-
6 D. Solvents Water is universal solvent b/c of its polarity If something can dissolve in something else, it is said to be solubleIf it cannot dissolve, it is said to be insoluble“Like dissolves like”
8 E. Solvation First... Then... Solvation – the process of dissolving solute particles are surrounded by solvent particlesFirst...solute particles are separated and pulled into solutionThen...
9 NaCl(s) Na+(aq) + Cl–(aq) E. SolvationDissociationseparation of an ionic solid into aqueous ionsNaCl(s) Na+(aq) + Cl–(aq)
10 E. Solvation Non- Electrolyte Weak Electrolyte Strong Electrolyte +sugar-+acetic acid-+saltNon-ElectrolyteWeakElectrolyteStrongElectrolytesolute exists asmolecules onlysolute exists asions andmoleculessolute exists asions only
11 F. Factors Affecting Solubility Solubility = amount of a substance that will dissolve in a liquidSmaller pieces of a substance dissolve faster b/c of larger surface areaStirring or shaking speeds dissolving b/c particles are moving faster and colliding moreHeating speeds dissolving (see above)Not all substances dissolve
12 F. Solubility Solids are more soluble at... high temperatures.Gases are more soluble at...low temperatures &high pressures (Henry’s Law).EX: nitrogen narcosis, the “bends,” soda
13 G. Solubility Solubility Curves maximum grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperaturevaries with tempbased on a saturated soln
14 G. Solubility Solubility Curve shows the dependence of solubility on temperature
15 HNO3(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + NO3–(aq) B. SolvationIonizationbreaking apart of some polar molecules into aqueous ionsHNO3(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + NO3–(aq)
17 B. Solvation Soap/Detergent polar “head” with long nonpolar “tail” dissolves nonpolar grease in polar water
18 H. ConcentrationThe more solute or less solvent in a solution, the more concentrated the solution becomesThe less solute or more solvent in a solution, the more dilute the solution becomesA saturated solution is one in which no more solute can dissolveA supersaturated solution is one in which the solvent is heated and can dissolve more solute
19 H. Concentration UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves no more solute dissolvesSUPERSATURATED SOLUTIONbecomes unstable, crystals formconcentration
22 What are acids? Compounds that donate H+ ions in water Taste sour Concentrated acids can burn skin and eyesOn pH scale, found below 7Stronger acids closer to 1Examples: citric acid, stomach acid, soda, coffee
23 What are bases? Compounds that donate OH- ions in water Taste bitter, are slipperyCan be dangerous as wellOften cleaning productspH above 7Stronger bases closer to 14Examples: bleach, baking soda, antacids
24 Neutral All neutral solutions have a pH of 7 Water is a neutral solution
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.