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Chapter 6 Notes: Solutions, Acids and Bases

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1 Chapter 6 Notes: Solutions, Acids and Bases
Chapters 22: Solutions Section 1: How Solutions Form Mrs. Chilton

2 A. Solutions and Other Mixtures
All matter is either a pure substance or a mixture Types of mixtures Homogeneous = solution; same composition throughout Heterogeneous = not the same composition throughout Pure substances Elements Compounds

3 B. Solutions Solution is a homogeneous mixture
Made up of solute and solvent Solute = what is dissolved Solvent = substance doing the dissolving Most common solvent? Water! Why?

4 B. Solution Examples KoolAid Unsweet tea Sweetened tea Saltwater

5 C. Dissolving Molecules are constantly in motion according to…
Kinetic Theory of Motion When particles collide, energy is transferred When ionic compounds dissolve in water, ions separate in solution Example: NaCl in water becomes Na+ and Cl-

6 D. Solvents Water is universal solvent b/c of its polarity
If something can dissolve in something else, it is said to be soluble If it cannot dissolve, it is said to be insoluble “Like dissolves like”

7 D. Solvents “Like Dissolves Like” NONPOLAR POLAR

8 E. Solvation First... Then... Solvation – the process of dissolving
solute particles are surrounded by solvent particles First... solute particles are separated and pulled into solution Then...

9 NaCl(s)  Na+(aq) + Cl–(aq)
E. Solvation Dissociation separation of an ionic solid into aqueous ions NaCl(s)  Na+(aq) + Cl–(aq)

10 E. Solvation Non- Electrolyte Weak Electrolyte Strong Electrolyte
+ sugar - + acetic acid - + salt Non- Electrolyte Weak Electrolyte Strong Electrolyte solute exists as molecules only solute exists as ions and molecules solute exists as ions only

11 F. Factors Affecting Solubility
Solubility = amount of a substance that will dissolve in a liquid Smaller pieces of a substance dissolve faster b/c of larger surface area Stirring or shaking speeds dissolving b/c particles are moving faster and colliding more Heating speeds dissolving (see above) Not all substances dissolve

12 F. Solubility Solids are more soluble at...
high temperatures. Gases are more soluble at... low temperatures & high pressures (Henry’s Law). EX: nitrogen narcosis, the “bends,” soda

13 G. Solubility Solubility Curves
maximum grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature varies with temp based on a saturated soln

14 G. Solubility Solubility Curve
shows the dependence of solubility on temperature

15 HNO3(aq) + H2O(l)  H3O+(aq) + NO3–(aq)
B. Solvation Ionization breaking apart of some polar molecules into aqueous ions HNO3(aq) + H2O(l)  H3O+(aq) + NO3–(aq)

16 B. Solvation C6H12O6(s)  C6H12O6(aq) Molecular Solvation
molecules stay intact C6H12O6(s)  C6H12O6(aq)

17 B. Solvation Soap/Detergent polar “head” with long nonpolar “tail”
dissolves nonpolar grease in polar water

18 H. Concentration The more solute or less solvent in a solution, the more concentrated the solution becomes The less solute or more solvent in a solution, the more dilute the solution becomes A saturated solution is one in which no more solute can dissolve A supersaturated solution is one in which the solvent is heated and can dissolve more solute

19 H. Concentration UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves
no more solute dissolves SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals form concentration

20 Chapter 23 Acids, Bases & Salts

21 Review – Acid Names HCl H2SO4 HNO3 H2SO3 HC2H3O2 Hydrochloric acid Sulfuric acid Nitric acid Sulfurous acid Acetic acid

22 What are acids? Compounds that donate H+ ions in water Taste sour
Concentrated acids can burn skin and eyes On pH scale, found below 7 Stronger acids closer to 1 Examples: citric acid, stomach acid, soda, coffee

23 What are bases? Compounds that donate OH- ions in water
Taste bitter, are slippery Can be dangerous as well Often cleaning products pH above 7 Stronger bases closer to 14 Examples: bleach, baking soda, antacids

24 Neutral All neutral solutions have a pH of 7
Water is a neutral solution

25 pH Scale

26 HCl + NaOH  H2O + NaCl Neutralization Example:
Reaction between an acid and a base to produce water and a salt H+ + OH-  H2O Example: HCl + NaOH  H2O + NaCl Do not always produce a neutral solution

27 Indicators Chemical dyes whose color are affected by acidic and basic solutions are called acid-base indicators

28 Summary BASES ACIDS electrolytes  electrolytes sour taste
bitter taste turn litmus red turn litmus blue Donate H+ (HCl) Donate OH- (NaOH) vinegar, milk, soda, apples, citrus fruits ammonia, lye, antacid, baking soda

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