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Chapters 22: Solutions Section 1: How Solutions Form.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapters 22: Solutions Section 1: How Solutions Form."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapters 22: Solutions Section 1: How Solutions Form

3 A. Solutions and Other Mixtures All matter is either a pure substance or a mixture All matter is either a pure substance or a mixture Types of mixtures Types of mixtures Homogeneous = solution; Homogeneous = solution; same composition throughout same composition throughout Heterogeneous = not the same Heterogeneous = not the same composition throughout composition throughout Pure substances Pure substances Elements Elements Compounds Compounds

4 B. Solutions Solution is a homogeneous mixture Solution is a homogeneous mixture Made up of solute and solvent Made up of solute and solvent Solute = what is dissolved Solute = what is dissolved Solvent = substance doing the dissolving Solvent = substance doing the dissolving Most common solvent? Most common solvent? Water! Why? Water! Why?

5 B. Solution Examples KoolAid KoolAid Unsweet tea Unsweet tea Sweetened tea Sweetened tea Saltwater Saltwater

6 C. Dissolving Molecules are constantly in motion according to… Molecules are constantly in motion according to… Kinetic Theory of Motion Kinetic Theory of Motion When particles collide, energy is transferred When particles collide, energy is transferred When ionic compounds dissolve in water, ions separate in solution When ionic compounds dissolve in water, ions separate in solution Example: NaCl in water becomes Na + and Cl - Example: NaCl in water becomes Na + and Cl -

7 D. Solvents Water is universal solvent b/c of its polarity Water is universal solvent b/c of its polarity If something can dissolve in something else, it is said to be soluble If something can dissolve in something else, it is said to be soluble If it cannot dissolve, it is said to be insoluble If it cannot dissolve, it is said to be insoluble Like dissolves like Like dissolves like

8 D. Solvents NONPOLAR POLAR Like Dissolves Like

9 E. Solvation Solvation – the process of dissolving Solvation – the process of dissolving solute particles are separated and pulled into solution solute particles are surrounded by solvent particles

10 E. Solvation Dissociation Dissociation separation of an ionic solid into aqueous ions separation of an ionic solid into aqueous ions NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl – (aq)

11 E. Solvation Strong Electrolyte Non- Electrolyte solute exists as ions only - + salt - + sugar solute exists as molecules only - + acetic acid Weak Electrolyte solute exists as ions and molecules

12 F. Factors Affecting Solubility Solubility = amount of a substance that will dissolve in a liquid Solubility = amount of a substance that will dissolve in a liquid Smaller pieces of a substance dissolve faster b/c of larger surface area Smaller pieces of a substance dissolve faster b/c of larger surface area Stirring or shaking speeds dissolving b/c particles are moving faster and colliding more Stirring or shaking speeds dissolving b/c particles are moving faster and colliding more Heating speeds dissolving (see above) Heating speeds dissolving (see above) Not all substances dissolve Not all substances dissolve

13 F. Solubility Solids are more soluble at... Solids are more soluble at... high temperatures. high temperatures. Gases are more soluble at... Gases are more soluble at... low temperatures & low temperatures & high pressures (Henrys Law). high pressures (Henrys Law). EX: nitrogen narcosis, the bends, soda EX: nitrogen narcosis, the bends, soda

14 G. Solubility Solubility Curves Solubility Curves maximum grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature maximum grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature varies with temp varies with temp based on a saturated soln based on a saturated soln

15 G. Solubility Solubility Curve Solubility Curve shows the dependence of solubility on temperature shows the dependence of solubility on temperature

16 B. Solvation Ionization Ionization breaking apart of some polar molecules into aqueous ions breaking apart of some polar molecules into aqueous ions HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 3 – (aq)

17 B. Solvation Molecular Solvation Molecular Solvation molecules stay intact molecules stay intact C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) C 6 H 12 O 6 (aq)

18 B. Solvation Soap/Detergent Soap/Detergent polar head with long nonpolar tail polar head with long nonpolar tail dissolves nonpolar grease in polar water dissolves nonpolar grease in polar water

19 H. Concentration The more solute or less solvent in a solution, the more concentrated the solution becomes The more solute or less solvent in a solution, the more concentrated the solution becomes The less solute or more solvent in a solution, the more dilute the solution becomes The less solute or more solvent in a solution, the more dilute the solution becomes A saturated solution is one in which no more solute can dissolve A saturated solution is one in which no more solute can dissolve A supersaturated solution is one in which the solvent is heated and can dissolve more solute A supersaturated solution is one in which the solvent is heated and can dissolve more solute

20 H. Concentration SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals form concentration

21 Chapter 23 Acids, Bases & Salts

22 Review – Acid Names HCl HCl H 2 SO 4 H 2 SO 4 HNO 3 HNO 3 H 2 SO 3 H 2 SO 3 HC 2 H 3 O 2 HC 2 H 3 O 2 Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Sulfurous acid Sulfurous acid Acetic acid Acetic acid

23 What are acids? Compounds that donate H + ions in water Compounds that donate H + ions in water Taste sour Taste sour Concentrated acids can burn skin and eyes Concentrated acids can burn skin and eyes On pH scale, found below 7 On pH scale, found below 7 Stronger acids closer to 1 Stronger acids closer to 1 Examples: citric acid, stomach acid, soda, coffee Examples: citric acid, stomach acid, soda, coffee

24 What are bases? Compounds that donate OH - ions in water Compounds that donate OH - ions in water Taste bitter, are slippery Taste bitter, are slippery Can be dangerous as well Can be dangerous as well Often cleaning products Often cleaning products pH above 7 pH above 7 Stronger bases closer to 14 Stronger bases closer to 14 Examples: bleach, baking soda, antacids Examples: bleach, baking soda, antacids

25 Neutral All neutral solutions have a pH of 7 All neutral solutions have a pH of 7 Water is a neutral solution Water is a neutral solution

26 pH Scale

27 Neutralization Reaction between an acid and a base to produce water and a salt Reaction between an acid and a base to produce water and a salt H + + OH - H 2 O Example: HCl + NaOH H 2 O + NaCl Do not always produce a neutral solution Do not always produce a neutral solution

28 Indicators Chemical dyes whose color are affected by acidic and basic solutions are called acid-base indicators acid-base indicators

29 Summary electrolytes electrolytes electrolytes electrolytes turn litmus red turn litmus red sour taste sour taste Donate H + (HCl) Donate H + (HCl) Donate OH - (NaOH) Donate OH - (NaOH) turn litmus blue turn litmus blue bitter taste bitter taste vinegar, milk, soda, apples, citrus fruits vinegar, milk, soda, apples, citrus fruits ammonia, lye, antacid, baking soda ammonia, lye, antacid, baking soda


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