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Terminology of chemistry. Also known as the naming process of compounds.
Oxidation Number The superscript which tells the charge of the element and the number of electrons it needs or can give up in order to be stable (happy)
Chemical Bonds When elements join together, they form a chemical bond.
Types of chemical bonds Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Metallic Bonds
Ionic Bonds When one or more electrons move from one element to another to form a bond
Ion When the charge of an atom is not neutral. It will have either more protons than electrons or more electron than protons.
Covalent Bonds When one or more electrons are shared between two elements to form a bond.
Molecule Two or more atoms joined together by covalent bonds
Metallic Bonds A special case where three or more metals bond together. One or more electrons are shared among more than two elements.
Forms of Matter Elemental Matter Compounds Mixtures
Elemental Matter A substance that is made up of only one kind of element
Compounds A substance that is made up of more than one kind of element.
Superscript The numbers written in the upper right hand corner of the atomic symbol of an element
Subscript The number written in the lower right hand corner of an element and tells the number of element found in the chemical.
Naming Binary Compounds Write down the Name of the positive element Write down the root of the negative element Add the suffix –ide to the root
Prefixes used in naming Mono- 1 Di- 2 Tri- 3 Tetra-4 Penta-5 Hexa-6 Hepta-7 Octa-8 Nona-9 Deca-10
Example using prefixes H 2 0 Dihydrogen monoxide CO 2 Carbon dioxide
-ide Suffix used to end the anion in naming a compound Ex: Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
-ide Is used for ions which only contain the atoms heard in the name. Ex: Chloride (Cl -1 )
Hydro-, -ic Prefix and suffix used for acids that were derived from ion with no oxygen. Ex: Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
When naming a hydrogen atom and a halogen, change hydrogen to hydro-. To the halogen add –ic suffix. This is also an acid. Ex: HCl Hydrochloric Acid
For metals with more than one oxidation number, then write its oxidation number in the formula. Use a Roman Numeral for this. Ex: FeCl2 Iron(II) Chloride
Coefficient Is the number found in front of an ion or compound. It tells the number of that ion or compound you have
Polymer Large molecule formed by bonding many smaller molecules together, most often in long chains
Hydrocarbons A compound composed carbon and hydrogen. They make good type of fuel.
Types of Electron Bonds Single Bond: contains 2 e - Strongest of the bonds Double Bond: contains 4 e - Triple Bond: contains 6 e - Weakest of the bonds
Polar Molecules A compound with one end having a positive charge and the other end with a negative charge.
Nonpolar Molecule A compound that is neutral.
Binary Compounds A compound composed of two elements.
Organic Matter Matter which contains Carbon
Chemical Reaction When a substance goes through a reaction and changes into another substance.
Chemical Equations A formula which shows how elements or compounds react to form new compounds
2H + + O -2 H 2 O
Parts of a chemical equations Reactants Yield Sign Products
Reactants The elements or compounds that are found on the left side of the yield sign
Yield Sign An arrow found in the equation which works like an equal sign
Products The elements or compounds that are found on the right side of the yield sign
Electrolysis The process of using electricity to break the chemical bonds.
Activation Energy The amount of energy it takes to start a reaction.
Catalysts A substance that increases the rate of chemical reactions without themselves becoming chemically changed or part of the product
Inhibitor A substance that decreases the rate of chemical reactions without themselves becoming chemically changed or part of the product
Endothermic Reactions Reactions that release less energy than was used to start reaction
Exothermic Reactions Reactions that release more energy than was used to start reaction
Catalyst A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering activation energies but is not itself consumed in the reaction.
Inhibitor A substance that slows down the reaction rate of a chemical reaction or prevents a reaction from happening.
Law of Conservation of Mass States that in any reaction, the same amount of mass must be found on both sides of the equation.
Balanced Equation For each element in a chemical equation, the same number of each element must be found on the left side of the arrow as on the right side
All chemical equations must be balanced.
To balance an equation, you can change the coefficient. However, you can never, never, never change the subscript.
Chemical Equilibrium A time period where the reactants come together just as quickly as the products breakdown
Purity of a substance determines the behavior of the substances.
Symbols used in Chemical Equations (l) The chemical is a liquid. (s) The chemical is a solid. (g) The chemical is a gas. (aq) The chemical is aqueous (dissolved in water).
Synthesis Reactions A reaction where the reactants combine to form a bigger compound (also known as combination)
Synthesis Reactions 2H + + O -2 H 2 O
Decomposition Reaction A reaction where the reactants break down (decompose)
Decomposition Reaction H 2 O 2H + + O -2
Single Displacement Reaction A reaction where one element replaces another element in a compound
Single Displacement Reaction 2Al 3+ + 3Ag 2 S Al 2 S 3 + 6Ag 2+
Double Displacement Reactions A reaction where the positive ion of two compounds switch, which forms two new compounds
Double Displacement Reactions HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O
Combustion A reaction in which a compound (often carbon) reacts with oxygen
Combustion C + O 2 CO 2 CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
Redox Reactions A reaction where one compound loses electrons and becomes a smaller compound, while another compound gains electrons and becomes a bigger compound.
Redox Reactions C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
Oxidized Compound The compound that loses electrons and becomes a smaller compound
Reduced Compound The compound that gains electrons and becomes a bigger compound
Oxidation- Reduction Reaction Another name for the Redox Reaction
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