Mycenaean Civilization Indo-Europeans migrated from Eurasian steppes to Europe, India, and SW Asia. Some of these people settled on the Greek mainland around 2,000 B.C.E. They became known as the Mycenaeans.
Mycenaean Civilization Guarded by protective wall 20 feet thick. Warrior-king ruled the surrounding villages and farmers. Strong rulers controlled the areas around other Mycenaean cities. These kings dominated Greece from 1600 to 1000 B.C.E.
Contact with Minoans 1500 B.C.E. Mycenaeans came into contact with Minoan civilization through trade or war. Mycenaean traders soon sailed throughout the eastern Mediterranean.
Contact with Minoans Minoans influenced Mycenaeans: –Mycenaeans adapted Minoan writing system to Greek language. –Decorated vases with Minoan designs. –Greek religious practice –Art –Politics –Literature
Trojan War: Fact or Fiction? Heinrich Schliemann
Greek City-States Polis (city-state): a city and its surrounding countryside, including villages. 50-500 square miles of territory 10,000 residents or less Acropolis – place on a fortified hilltop where citizens gathered to discuss city government. The acropolis at Athens
Greek Political Structures Monarchy government: ruled by a king; rule is hereditary; some rulers claimed divine right. (Mycenae, 2000 B.C.E.) Aristocracy: state ruled by nobility, rule is hereditary based on family ties, social rank, and wealth (Athens prior to 594 B.C.E.) Oligarchy: state ruled by a small group of citizens; rule is based on wealth or ability; ruling controls military (Sparta, 500 B.C.E.) Direct Democracy: state ruled by its citizens; rule based on citizenship; majority rule decides vote (Athens after 500 B.C.E.)
Athens Builds a Democracy In 621 B.C.E. Draco, developed a legal code: all Athenians were equal. In 594 B.C.E. Solon outlawed debt slavery Solon organized all Athenians into four social classes based on wealth. Top three classes could hold public office, but anyone could participate in assembly.
Age of Pericles (461-429 B.C.E. Direct Democracy – citizens rule directly and not through representatives Male citizens who served in the assembly establish all the important government policies that affected the polis.
Athenian Education Sons of wealthy families received formal educationpoetry, history, math, logic, public speaking, athletics, military school Girls were educated at home by their mothers, i.e. child-rearing, weaving cloth, preparing meals. A few women were able to learn to read and write.
Spartas Government Assembly composed of Spartan citizens who elected officials and voted on issues. Council of Elders – 30 older citizens proposed laws Five elected officials carried out laws. Two kings ruled over military forces.
Spartas Social Structure Citizens descended from original inhabitants – ruling families who owned the land. Non-citizens who were free worked in commerce and industry. Helots – worked in the fields or as house servants
Spartas Society Sparta had the most powerful army in Greece. Individual expression was discouraged. Did not value the arts, literature, intellectual pursuits. Did value duty, strength, and discipline.
Gender Roles in Sparta Boys served in the military until age of 60. Boys lives centered on military training. Spartan girls received some military training; they also wrestled and played sports. Spartan women had considerable freedom.
Persian Wars Danger of helot revolt led Sparta to become military state. Struggles between rich and poor led Athens to become a democracy. Invasion by Persian armies moved Sparta and Athens to their greatness.
Impact of Technology on Warfare Before 750 B.C.E., only the rich could afford bronze spears, shields, breastplates and chariots. Iron later replaced bronze in manufacture of weapons. Because iron was common and cheap, ordinary citizens could afford to arm and defend themselves. The phalanx emerged.
Battle at Marathon In 546 B.C.E. Darius conquered Greeks in Ionia. Athens helped Ionians and Darius vowed revenge. In 490 B.C.E. Persian fleet of 25,000 men landed in Marathon. 10,000 Athenians easily defeated the unprepared Persians. Pheidippides raced 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to protect city.
The Persian Wars (490 to 479 B.C.E.) Persia and the Greek city- states battled for over 10 years. Persians were unsuccessful in their efforts to conquer Greek city-states. Greek city-states formed alliance called Delian League. League members eventually were successful in driving the Persians from the territories surrounding Greece.
Consequences of Persian Wars Athens emerged as a leader of the Delian League which had 200 city-states. Athens used power to control other league members. In time, city-states became provinces of Athenian empire. Prestige and wealth of Athens set the stage for a golden age.
The Parthenon 23,000 square feet In traditional style of Greek temples Built to honor Athena, goddess of wisdom and protector of Athens Figures were graceful, strong, and perfect. Set standards for classical art.
The Hellenistic Age Age of Alexander and his successors Greek culture expanded influence beyond Greece. They facilitated trade and made is possible for culture to spread over large distances.
Alexander the Greats Empire Phillipp II conquered Greece in 338 B.C.E. His son Alexander took over at age 20. Alexander conquered the Persian Empire, including Egypt in 332 B.C.E. Alexandria was established in his name. By 326 B.C.E. Alexander and his army reached the Indus Valley. After 11 years of fighting his men wanted to go home.
Alexanders Legacy After Alexanders death, his generals fought among themselves for control of the empire. The empire was divided: –Antigonus – king of Macedonia and Greek city-states –Ptolemy – pharaoh of Egypt –Selecus – Persian empire These rulers and their descendants ignored democratic traditions.
Alexandria Wealthiest of Hellenistic Empires was Ptolemaic Egypt. Huge harbor of 1,200 ships Culturally diverse Famous Alexandrian Museum – philosophy, literature, science Famous Alexandrian Library of more than 700,000 works
Alexanders Legacy Alexander adopted Persian dress and customs and married a Persian woman. Persians and people from other lands made up his army. In time, Greek settlers throughout the empire adopted new ways. A blend of Greek and Eastern customs emerged.
Agriculture in Ancient Greece Mountainous, rocky terrain Depended upon maritime trade. Cultivated olives, grapes, olive oil, and wine Grain came from Egypt, Sicily, and southern Russia Cities relied more on commerce than agriculture.
Greek Society Patriarchal – women spent time in the family home; could not own property but sometimes operated small businesses Literacy was common among upper class Greek women; poet Sappho was active. Slaves came from those who couldnt pay debts, conquests and Africa (Egypt)
Socrates (470-399 BCE) Posed questions that reflected on human issues, i.e. ethics and morality. Honor was more important than wealth or fame. The unexamined life is not worth living. Condemned to death for immorality and corruption of Athenian youth who joined him to discuss moral and ethical issues.
The Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David (1787)
Plato Socrates student or follower Presented thought in dialogue between Socrates and a student The Republic: Disturbed that intellectual control over the world was not possible because world is constantly in a state of flux. Advocated intellectual aristocracy; philosophical elite rules while less intelligent classes work.
Aristotle Believed philosophers could rely on their senses to provide accurate information about the world, and Use reason to sort out its mysteries. Wrote on biology, physics, astronomy, psychology, politics, ethics, and literature. Christian and Islamic theologians tried to harmonize religious convictions with the philosophical views of Plato and Aristotle.
Popular Religion Most Greeks of classical era did not have advanced education. Polytheistic Constructed myths related to stories of the gods. Myths sough to explain the world and its forces. Women were the most prominent devotees of Dionysus, god of wine. Euripides play The Bacchae.
Philosophy: The Stoics Taught individuals they had the duty to aid others and lead virtuous lives. Focused on reason and nature. Sought ways to bring individuals to a state of inner peace and tranquility.