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“THE SUN KING” Le Roi Soleil

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Presentation on theme: "“THE SUN KING” Le Roi Soleil"— Presentation transcript:

1 “THE SUN KING” Le Roi Soleil


3 Louis’ Parents Louis XIV's parents were King Louis XIII and Anne of Austria It was 23 years before their first child, Louis, was born in 1638. The royal couple produced another son, Philippe, in 1640. When young Louis was four (1642), his father fell gravely ill with tuberculosis. Less than a month later Louis XIII died, and his four-year-old son became King Louis XIV of France.

4 The Regency For 18 years, Louis’ mother, Anne of Austria served as her son's regent She was advised by Cardinal Mazarin. The cardinal may have been the queen's lover or even her secret husband. Whatever the truth of that, Mazarin's relationship with Louis was like that of father and son.

5 His Majesty’s Love Life
When King Louis was in his teens he fell in love with Marie Mancini The two secretly became engaged, but Louis's mother refused to allow the match. Marie Mancini was packed off to Italy to marry a nobleman Louis reluctantly agreed to a political marriage with Maria Theresa, the daughter of the king of Spain. The couple would have seven children, but only one -- a son named Louis -- survived to adulthood.

6 The King Rules Alone Cardinal Mazarin died in 1661, when Louis XIV was 22 years old. From that time on, Louis XIV was the sole ruler of France. He reigned for 72 years, longer than any other ruler in European history.

7 The King Rules Alone Under his leadership France became a world power and a leader in the arts. He was an absolute monarch, as expressed in the famous quote attributed to him, "L'etat c'est moi" (I am the state). He identified himself with Apollo, the Greek god of the sun, Louis XIV came to be called "the Sun King."


9 French English Spanish






15 Life at the court was narrowly regulated by court etiquette
Life at the court was narrowly regulated by court etiquette. Etiquette became the means of social advancement for the court. Louis XIV’s elaborate rules of etiquette included the following: People who wanted to speak to the king could not knock on his door. Instead, using the left little finger, they had to gently scratch on the door, until they were granted permission to enter. As a result, many courtiers grew that fingernail longer than the others; A lady never held hands or linked arms with a gentleman. Besides being in bad taste, this practice would have been impossible because a woman’s hooped skirts were so wide. Instead, she was to place her hand on top of the gentleman’s bent arm as they strolled through the gardens and chambers of Versailles. It is also mentioned that the ladies were only allowed to touch fingertips with the men. When a gentleman sat down, he slid his left foot in front of the other, placed his hands on the sides of the chair and gently lowered himself into the chair. There was a very practical reason for this procedure. If a gentleman sat too fast, his tight trousers might split;

16 Women and men were not allowed to cross their legs in public;
When a gentleman passed an acquaintance on the street, he was to raise his hat high off his head until the other person passed; A gentleman was to do no work except writing letters, giving speeches, practising fencing, or dancing. For pleasure he engaged in hawking, archery, indoor tennis, or hunting. A gentleman would also take part in battle and would sometimes serve as a public officer, paying the soldiers; Ladies’ clothing did not allow them to do much besides sit and walk. However, they passed the time sewing, knitting, writing letters, painting, making their own lace, and creating their own cosmetics and perfumes

17 THE KING BUILDS A HOME Louis XIV is perhaps best remembered as the king who built Versailles. When he became king he inherited several palaces, including the Fontainebleau and the Louvre

18 The Louvre, Paris


20 Palace of Fontainbleau

21 Fontainbleau Palace Staircase

22 The Fontainbleau

The Château de Versailles is one of the largest castles in the world . The Chateau de Versailles has ...  more than 2,000 windows, 700 rooms, 1250 fireplaces, 67 staircases and more than 1,800 acres of park. The  paintings, tapestries , sculptures, furniture of this castle , were made by the best  Italian and French artists of the time .

24 In 1623, King Louis XIII - father of Louis XIV , had built a hunting lodge, a little  château of brick, stone, and slate . The king liked so much this little castle in the middle of such a good hunting park,  that he soon had it enlarged by  Philibert Le Roy

25 In 1682, the Château de Versailles  became the official residence of the Sun King and his Court ,  replacing the Louvre and Saint-Germain Castles. When the king moved into the Versailles castle in 1682 ,before the construction was finished, he insisted that the castle was for the people, and that his home be open to one and all. Gates of the Chateau stayed open all day long, and guards only checked for guns that could endanger the king.  From 1678 to 1684,  the terrace of the new chateau was transformed into the Hall of Mirrors, symbolizing the power of the Sun King .The last construction started during the reign of Louis XIV is the Royal Chapel .It was completed in 1710 by Robert de Cotte. 


27 Versailles



30 The Hall of Mirrors





35 Porcelain Dining Room

36 Library of Louis XIV

37 a royal bedchamber



40 Peter was tsar of Russia from 1682 to 1725.
His self-given title was Peter the Great He was officially Peter I. Becomes tsar at the age of 10 on the death of his elder half-brother

41 Peter the Great is credited with dragging Russia out of the medieval times
By his death in 1725, Russia was considered a leading eastern European state. He centralized the government, modernized the army, created a navy His domestic policy allowed him to pursue an aggressive foreign policy.

42 His life was constantly under threat from factions surrounding the two widows of his father.
When his father, Tsar Alexis, died in January 1676, Peter’s elder half-brother succeeded as Theodore III. His succession was legal and no-one could dispute it. Theodore died in Peter succeeded Theodore as tsar.

43 In August 1689 at the age of 17, Peter removed his sister, Sophia, who had been the regent, from power and ruled as Russia’s sole leader He was nearly 7 feet tall and very broad. He was massively powerful, "loud-mouthed, violent, ruthless and impetuous".

44 He always wanted to learn and was always active.
In 1697 he went on a “grand tour” of Europe He met with monarchs of several European nations He also traveled incognito and even working as a ship's carpenter in Holland. He gathered a large amount of knowledge on western European industrial techniques and state administration He returned to Russia determined to modernize the Russian state and to westernize its society.

45 In 1703, he decided to transfer the capital from Moscow to a new city to be built on the Gulf of Finland. Over the next nine years, at tremendous cost in both money and human cost, St. Petersburg was built.

46 Palace Square – St. Petersburg, Russia

47 Palace Square – Another View

48 Peter wanted an outlet to the Baltic Sea
Most Russian cities that bordered the sea remained frozen at least 9 months of the year He intended to make St. Petersburg a modern, Western-style city that would serve as Russia’s “window on Europe.”

49 Reforms Peter sent Russians to be educated in the West
Brought in skilled labor, military and administrative experts from abroad. He encouraged smoking, but taxed tobacco. Because European men usually were clean shaven, he taxed Russians wearing beards. He modernized the calendar, simplified numerals Encouraged private industry and mining. Peter managed to modernize Russia without borrowing money for his state. Instead, he taxed his citizens heavily.

50 “Venice of the North”

51 Winter Palace Malachite Throne Room





56 The Hermitage Palace


58 Peterhof, The Russian Versailles




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