Presentation on theme: "LOUIS XIV 1642-1715 THE SUN KING Le Roi Soleil."— Presentation transcript:
LOUIS XIV THE SUN KING Le Roi Soleil
Louis Parents Louis XIV's parents were King Louis XIII and Anne of Austria It was 23 years before their first child, Louis, was born in The royal couple produced another son, Philippe, in When young Louis was four (1642), his father fell gravely ill with tuberculosis. Less than a month later Louis XIII died, and his four-year- old son became King Louis XIV of France.
The Regency For 18 years, Louis mother, Anne of Austria served as her son's regent She was advised by Cardinal Mazarin. The cardinal may have been the queen's lover or even her secret husband. Whatever the truth of that, Mazarin's relationship with Louis was like that of father and son.
His Majestys Love Life When King Louis was in his teens he fell in love with Marie Mancini The two secretly became engaged, but Louis's mother refused to allow the match. Marie Mancini was packed off to Italy to marry a nobleman Louis reluctantly agreed to a political marriage with Maria Theresa, the daughter of the king of Spain. The couple would have seven children, but only one -- a son named Louis -- survived to adulthood.
The King Rules Alone Cardinal Mazarin died in 1661, when Louis XIV was 22 years old. From that time on, Louis XIV was the sole ruler of France. He reigned for 72 years, longer than any other ruler in European history.
The King Rules Alone Under his leadership France became a world power and a leader in the arts. He was an absolute monarch, as expressed in the famous quote attributed to him, "L'etat c'est moi" (I am the state). He identified himself with Apollo, the Greek god of the sun, Louis XIV came to be called "the Sun King."
Life at the court was narrowly regulated by court etiquette. Etiquette became the means of social advancement for the court. Louis XIVs elaborate rules of etiquette included the following: People who wanted to speak to the king could not knock on his door. Instead, using the left little finger, they had to gently scratch on the door, until they were granted permission to enter. As a result, many courtiers grew that fingernail longer than the others; A lady never held hands or linked arms with a gentleman. Besides being in bad taste, this practice would have been impossible because a womans hooped skirts were so wide. Instead, she was to place her hand on top of the gentlemans bent arm as they strolled through the gardens and chambers of Versailles. It is also mentioned that the ladies were only allowed to touch fingertips with the men. When a gentleman sat down, he slid his left foot in front of the other, placed his hands on the sides of the chair and gently lowered himself into the chair. There was a very practical reason for this procedure. If a gentleman sat too fast, his tight trousers might split;
Women and men were not allowed to cross their legs in public; When a gentleman passed an acquaintance on the street, he was to raise his hat high off his head until the other person passed; A gentleman was to do no work except writing letters, giving speeches, practising fencing, or dancing. For pleasure he engaged in hawking, archery, indoor tennis, or hunting. A gentleman would also take part in battle and would sometimes serve as a public officer, paying the soldiers; Ladies clothing did not allow them to do much besides sit and walk. However, they passed the time sewing, knitting, writing letters, painting, making their own lace, and creating their own cosmetics and perfumes
THE KING BUILDS A HOME Louis XIV is perhaps best remembered as the king who built Versailles. When he became king he inherited several palaces, including the Fontainebleau and the Louvre
VERSAILLES AND THE SUN KING The Château de Versailles is one of the largest castles in the world. The Chateau de Versailles has... more than 2,000 windows, 700 rooms, 1250 fireplaces, 67 staircases and more than 1,800 acres of park. The paintings, tapestries, sculptures, furniture of this castle, were made by the best Italian and French artists of the time.
In 1623, King Louis XIII - father of Louis XIV, had built a hunting lodge, a little château of brick, stone, and slate. The king liked so much this little castle in the middle of such a good hunting park, that he soon had it enlarged by Philibert Le Roy
In 1682, the Château de Versailles became the official residence of the Sun King and his Court, replacing the Louvre and Saint- Germain Castles. When the king moved into the Versailles castle in 1682,before the construction was finished, he insisted that the castle was for the people, and that his home be open to one and all. Gates of the Chateau stayed open all day long, and guards only checked for guns that could endanger the king. From 1678 to 1684, the terrace of the new chateau was transformed into the Hall of Mirrors, symbolizing the power of the Sun King.The last construction started during the reign of Louis XIV is the Royal Chapel.It was completed in 1710 by Robert de Cotte.
PETER THE GREAT TSAR OF ALL THE RUSSIAS
Peter was tsar of Russia from 1682 to His self-given title was Peter the Great He was officially Peter I. Becomes tsar at the age of 10 on the death of his elder half-brother
Peter the Great is credited with dragging Russia out of the medieval times By his death in 1725, Russia was considered a leading eastern European state. He centralized the government, modernized the army, created a navy His domestic policy allowed him to pursue an aggressive foreign policy.
His life was constantly under threat from factions surrounding the two widows of his father. When his father, Tsar Alexis, died in January 1676, Peters elder half-brother succeeded as Theodore III. His succession was legal and no-one could dispute it. Theodore died in Peter succeeded Theodore as tsar.
In August 1689 at the age of 17, Peter removed his sister, Sophia, who had been the regent, from power and ruled as Russias sole leader He was nearly 7 feet tall and very broad. He was massively powerful, "loud-mouthed, violent, ruthless and impetuous".
He always wanted to learn and was always active. In 1697 he went on a grand tour of Europe He met with monarchs of several European nations He also traveled incognito and even working as a ship's carpenter in Holland. He gathered a large amount of knowledge on western European industrial techniques and state administration He returned to Russia determined to modernize the Russian state and to westernize its society.
In 1703, he decided to transfer the capital from Moscow to a new city to be built on the Gulf of Finland. Over the next nine years, at tremendous cost in both money and human cost, St. Petersburg was built.
Palace Square – St. Petersburg, Russia
Palace Square – Another View
Peter wanted an outlet to the Baltic Sea Most Russian cities that bordered the sea remained frozen at least 9 months of the year He intended to make St. Petersburg a modern, Western-style city that would serve as Russias window on Europe.
Reforms Peter sent Russians to be educated in the West Brought in skilled labor, military and administrative experts from abroad. He encouraged smoking, but taxed tobacco. Because European men usually were clean shaven, he taxed Russians wearing beards. He modernized the calendar, simplified numerals Encouraged private industry and mining. Peter managed to modernize Russia without borrowing money for his state. Instead, he taxed his citizens heavily.