3Louis’ ParentsLouis XIV's parents were King Louis XIII and Anne of AustriaIt was 23 years before their first child, Louis, was born in 1638.The royal couple produced another son, Philippe, in 1640.When young Louis was four (1642), his father fell gravely ill with tuberculosis.Less than a month later Louis XIII died, and his four-year-old son became King Louis XIV of France.
4The RegencyFor 18 years, Louis’ mother, Anne of Austria served as her son's regentShe was advised by Cardinal Mazarin. The cardinal may have been the queen's lover or even her secret husband.Whatever the truth of that, Mazarin's relationship with Louis was like that of father and son.
5His Majesty’s Love Life When King Louis was in his teens he fell in love with Marie ManciniThe two secretly became engaged, but Louis's mother refused to allow the match.Marie Mancini was packed off to Italy to marry a noblemanLouis reluctantly agreed to a political marriage with Maria Theresa, the daughter of the king of Spain.The couple would have seven children, but only one -- a son named Louis -- survived to adulthood.
6The King Rules AloneCardinal Mazarin died in 1661, when Louis XIV was 22 years old.From that time on, Louis XIV was the sole ruler of France.He reigned for 72 years, longer than any other ruler in European history.
7The King Rules AloneUnder his leadership France became a world power and a leader in the arts.He was an absolute monarch, as expressed in the famous quote attributed to him, "L'etat c'est moi" (I am the state).He identified himself with Apollo, the Greek god of the sun, Louis XIV came to be called "the Sun King."
15Life at the court was narrowly regulated by court etiquette Life at the court was narrowly regulated by court etiquette. Etiquette became the means of social advancement for the court.Louis XIV’s elaborate rules of etiquette included the following:People who wanted to speak to the king could not knock on his door. Instead, using the left little finger, they had to gently scratch on the door, until they were granted permission to enter. As a result, many courtiers grew that fingernail longer than the others;A lady never held hands or linked arms with a gentleman. Besides being in bad taste, this practice would have been impossible because a woman’s hooped skirts were so wide. Instead, she was to place her hand on top of the gentleman’s bent arm as they strolled through the gardens and chambers of Versailles. It is also mentioned that the ladies were only allowed to touch fingertips with the men.When a gentleman sat down, he slid his left foot in front of the other, placed his hands on the sides of the chair and gently lowered himself into the chair. There was a very practical reason for this procedure. If a gentleman sat too fast, his tight trousers might split;
16Women and men were not allowed to cross their legs in public; When a gentleman passed an acquaintance on the street, he was to raise his hat high off his head until the other person passed;A gentleman was to do no work except writing letters, giving speeches, practising fencing, or dancing. For pleasure he engaged in hawking, archery, indoor tennis, or hunting. A gentleman would also take part in battle and would sometimes serve as a public officer, paying the soldiers;Ladies’ clothing did not allow them to do much besides sit and walk. However, they passed the time sewing, knitting, writing letters, painting, making their own lace, and creating their own cosmetics and perfumes
17THE KING BUILDS A HOMELouis XIV is perhaps best remembered as the king who built Versailles.When he became king he inherited several palaces, including the Fontainebleau and the Louvre
23VERSAILLES AND THE SUN KING The Château de Versailles is one of the largest castles in the world .The Chateau de Versailles has ... more than 2,000 windows, 700 rooms, 1250 fireplaces, 67 staircases and more than 1,800 acres of park.The paintings, tapestries , sculptures, furniture of this castle , were made by the best Italian and French artists of the time .
24In 1623, King Louis XIII - father of Louis XIV , had built a hunting lodge, a little château of brick, stone, and slate .The king liked so much this little castle in the middle of such a good hunting park, that he soon had it enlarged by Philibert Le Roy
25In 1682, the Château de Versailles became the official residence of the Sun King and his Court , replacing the Louvre and Saint-Germain Castles.When the king moved into the Versailles castle in 1682 ,before the construction was finished, he insisted that the castle was for the people, and that his home be open to one and all.Gates of the Chateau stayed open all day long, and guards only checked for guns that could endanger the king. From 1678 to 1684, the terrace of the new chateau was transformed into the Hall of Mirrors, symbolizing the power of the Sun King .The last construction started during the reign of Louis XIV is the Royal Chapel .It was completed in 1710 by Robert de Cotte.
40Peter was tsar of Russia from 1682 to 1725. His self-given title was Peter the GreatHe was officially Peter I.Becomes tsar at the age of 10 on the death of his elder half-brother
41Peter the Great is credited with dragging Russia out of the medieval times By his death in 1725, Russia was considered a leading eastern European state.He centralized the government, modernized the army, created a navyHis domestic policy allowed him to pursue an aggressive foreign policy.
42His life was constantly under threat from factions surrounding the two widows of his father. When his father, Tsar Alexis, died in January 1676, Peter’s elder half-brother succeeded as Theodore III.His succession was legal and no-one could dispute it. Theodore died in Peter succeeded Theodore as tsar.
43In August 1689 at the age of 17, Peter removed his sister, Sophia, who had been the regent, from power and ruled as Russia’s sole leaderHe was nearly 7 feet tall and very broad. He was massively powerful, "loud-mouthed, violent, ruthless and impetuous".
44He always wanted to learn and was always active. In 1697 he went on a “grand tour” of EuropeHe met with monarchs of several European nationsHe also traveled incognito and even working as a ship's carpenter in Holland.He gathered a large amount of knowledge on western European industrial techniques and state administrationHe returned to Russia determined to modernize the Russian state and to westernize its society.
45In 1703, he decided to transfer the capital from Moscow to a new city to be built on the Gulf of Finland.Over the next nine years, at tremendous cost in both money and human cost, St. Petersburg was built.
48Peter wanted an outlet to the Baltic Sea Most Russian cities that bordered the sea remained frozen at least 9 months of the yearHe intended to make St. Petersburg a modern, Western-style city that would serve as Russia’s “window on Europe.”
49Reforms Peter sent Russians to be educated in the West Brought in skilled labor, military and administrative experts from abroad.He encouraged smoking, but taxed tobacco.Because European men usually were clean shaven, he taxed Russians wearing beards.He modernized the calendar, simplified numeralsEncouraged private industry and mining.Peter managed to modernize Russia without borrowing money for his state. Instead, he taxed his citizens heavily.