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Absolutism in Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "Absolutism in Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Absolutism in Europe

2 What is Absolutism? Absolutism- kings or queens who believe all power within their state’s boundaries rested in their hands    Believed in divine right (God blesses their rule)

3 Why did Europe’s Monarchs grow?
17th century upheaval in Europe and monarchs respond by using power to impose order Decline in feudalism and rise in cities Use of colonies to pay for ambitions

4 SPAIN: King Philip II Ruled: 1554-1598

5 Philip II tried to control every aspect of his empire’s affairs
Deeply religious- very Catholic and against Muslims and Protestants ! Expanded territory- took control of Portugal when Portuguese king died without an heir Built a large army and palace (with a monastary inside) Art and Literature flourished under him: Don Quixote de la Mancha – by Miguel de Cervantes was birth of European novel

6 King Philip’s Wars weaken spain
1571 took up arms against the Muslims at battle of Lepanto and defeated the Muslims 1588 war against England- sent Spanish Armada- but lost (showed the waning power of Spain and allowed other Europeans to take over the seas) Lost the Spanish Netherlands to the Dutch and the Netherlands becomes independent of Spanish rule

7 FRANCE: King Louis XIV Ruled: 1643-1715

8 Louis XIV: The Sun King “L’etat, c’est moi” I am the state
1643 became ruler of France at five years old Weakened power of nobles, strengthened power of central government and government agents called intendants – they collected taxes and administered justice

9 Louis wanted France to attain economic, political, and cultural brilliance
Jean Baptiste Colbert- finance minister, who believed in mercantilism and wanted to make France self-sufficient. Colbert expanded manufacturing, high tariff on imports, and encouraged people to migrate to Canada 1685 Louis cancelled the Edict of Nantes (a document of religious toleration) and many skilled artisans left the country

10 Louis Controls the Nobility
Nobles at the palace to serve him Required hundreds at Versailles Palace at Versailles was so large it was like a small royal city  Patron of the Arts Purpose of art was to glorify the king and promote values of absolute rule

11 Russia: Peter the Great Ruled: 1682-1725

12 Peter the Great got his name because he was a good reformer
To force change on his people he increased his power as an absolute ruler Brought Russian orthodox church under state control – Holy Synod – group to run the church Reduced the power of the great landowners Modernized the army using European trainers Heavy taxes to pay for the army

13 Westernizing Russia Introduced potatoes Started first newspaper
Raised women’s status Ordered the nobles to give up traditional clothes for western fashion Wanted a seaport to the west. Fought Sweden for 21 years and won St. Petersburg (named after his patron saint) Difficult to build St. Petersburg (many died). Ordered nobles to settle there later 1725 Peter died and Russia was a power to reckon with

14 Prussia: Frederick the Great Ruled: 1740-1786

15 1640 Frederick William (Frederick the Great’s dad) built a strong standing army
Introduced permanent taxation to pay for the army Weakened representative assemblies Junkers (landowning nobility) resisted these moves but were given army officer positions and Prussia soon became military society Frederick II (son) followed many of his father’s policies but with a softer hand and became known as Frederick the Great

16 Austria: Maria Theresa Ruled: 1745-1765

17 Ruler centralized government and created a standing army
Her father took Hungary from Ottomans in 1699 Very Catholic- did not allow any tolerance in her kingdom

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