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Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 17 The Foundations of Christian Society in Western.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 17 The Foundations of Christian Society in Western."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 17 The Foundations of Christian Society in Western Europe

2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 2 Early Middle Ages Devolution of rule Lords, manors Devolution of the economy Invasion: Goths, Magyars, Vikings, Arabs Christianization of Europe Romanization of the Church Those who pray, those who fight, those who work

3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 3 The Germanic Successor States, c. 500 CE Last Roman emperor deposed by Germanic Odoacer, 476 CE Administrative apparatus still in place, but cities lose population Germanic successor states: Spain: Visigoths Italy: Ostrogoths Gaul: Burgundians, Franks Britian: Angles, Saxons

4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 4 Successor States to the Roman Empire c. 500

5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 5 The Franks Heavy influence on European development Strong agricultural base Shifts center of economic gravity to Europe Firm alliance with western Christian church

6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 6 Clovis (ruled ) Major Frankish leader Destroyed last vestiges of Roman rule in Gaul Dominated other Germanic peoples Franks establish themselves as preeminent Germanic people

7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 7 Clovis Conversion to Christianity Paganism, Arian Christianity popular among Franks Clovis and army chooses Roman Catholicism Influence of wife Clotilda Political implications: Alliance with western church

8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 8 The Carolingians Charles The Hammer Martel begins Carolingian dynasty Defeats Spanish Muslims at Battle of Tours (732) Halts Islamic advance into western Europe

9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 9 The Carolingian Empire

10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 10 Charlemagne (r ) Grandson of Charles Martel Centralized imperial rule Functional illiterate, but sponsored extensive scholarship Major military achievements

11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 11 Charlemagnes Administration Capital at Aachen, Germany Yet constant travel throughout empire Imperial officials: missi dominici (envoys of the lord ruler) Continued yearly circuit travel

12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 12 Charlemagne as Emperor Hesitated to challenge Byzantines by taking title emperor Yet ruled in fact Pope Leo III crowns him as emperor in 800 Planned in advance? Challenge to Byzantium

13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 13 Louis the Pious (r ) Son of Charlemagne Lost control of courts, local authorities Civil war erupts between three sons Empire divided in 843

14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 14 Invasions South: Muslims East: Magyars North: Vikings Norse expansion begins c. 800 CE Driven by population pressure, hostility to spread of Christianity Superior seafaring technology Sailed to eastern Canada, northeastern US

15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 15 Dissolution of the Carolingian Empire

16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 16 Viking ship

17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 17 The Vikings From village of Vik, Norway (hence Viking) Boats with shallow drafts, capable of river travel as well as open seas Attacked villages, cities from 9 th century Constantinople sacked three times Carolingians had no navy, dependent on local defenses

18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 18 England Viking invasions force consolidation of Angles, Saxons and other Germanic peoples under King Alfred (r ) Built navy Fortified cities against attack

19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 19 Germany and France King Otto of Saxony (r ) defeats Magyars, 955 Proclaimed emperor by Pope in 962 Establishment of Holy Roman Empire France endures heavy Viking settlement Loss of local autonomy

20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 20 Early Medieval Society Concept of Feudalism Lords and vassals Increasingly inadequate model for describing complex society Ad hoc arrangements in absence of strong central authorities

21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 21 Organizing in a Decentralized Society Local nobles take over administration from weak central government Nominal allegiances, esp. to Carolingian kings But increasing independence

22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 22 Lords and Retainers Formation of small private armies Incentives: land grants, income from mills, cash payments Formation of hereditary class of military retainers Development of other functions Justice, social welfare

23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 23 Potential for Instability Complex interrelationship of lord-retainer relations Rebellion always a possibility Nevertheless, viable large states developed (Germany, France, England)

24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 24 Origins of Serfdom Slaves, free peasants in both Roman and Germanic societies Heavy intermarriage Appeals to lords, special relationships Mid-7 th century: recognition of serf class Midway between slave and free peasant

25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 25 Serfs Rights and Obligations Right to pass on land to heirs Obligation to provide labor, payments in kind to lord Unable to move from land Fees charged for marrying serfs of another lord

26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 26 Manors Large, diverse estates Lord provides governance, police, justice services Serfs provide labor, income

27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 27 The Economy of Early Medieval Europe Agricultural center moves north from Mediterranean 8 th century iron-tipped plow introduced in Europe Draft animals bred Water mill technology Agricultural output insufficient to support growth of cities Strong Mediterranean trade despite Muslim domination of sea

28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 28 Norse Merchant Mariners Commerce or plunder as convenient Link with the Islamic world for trade

29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 29 Population Growth of Europe, CE

30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 30 The Formation of Christian Europe Clovis conversion forms strong alliance with Roman Christianity Church supplies Clovis with class of literate information workers: Scribes secretaries

31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 31 The Franks and the Church Protectors of the Papacy Charlemagne destroys Lombards, who threatened Pope, Rome Spreads Christianity in northern areas Support of scholarship, scribal activity

32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 32 The Spread of Christianity Charlemagne fights pagan Saxons ( ) Saxons later adopt Christianity Scandinavia, other pockets of paganism until c CE

33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 33 Pope Gregory I ( CE) Gregory the Great Asserted papal primacy Prominent theologian Sacrament of penance Major missionary activity, especially in England

34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 34 Monasticism Egyptian origins, 2 nd -3 rd centuries Monastic lifestyle expands 4 th century Large variety of monastic rules Range from extremely ascetic to very lax

35 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 35 St. Benedict ( ) Established consistent rule for monasteries Poverty Chastity Obedience St. Scholastica ( ) Sister of St. Benedict Adapts Benedictine Rule for convents

36 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 36 Monasticism and Society Accumulation of large landholdings, serfs Social welfare projects Esp. labor contributions Expansion of literacy Inns, orphanages, hospitals


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