Presentation on theme: "Monday, December 7 Hold your DBQ materials until tomorrow. Bring textbook for reading or group planning time. Wrap-up discussion of CCOT during the Middle."— Presentation transcript:
Monday, December 7 Hold your DBQ materials until tomorrow. Bring textbook for reading or group planning time. Wrap-up discussion of CCOT during the Middle Ages Chapter 20 Quiz Upcoming Dates –Reading Guide for chapters 6 and 21 is due on Thursday. –Reading Quiz on chapters 6 and 21 is on Friday –Chapter 22 Reading Guide is due on Monday. –Group Review Projects due Wednesday, December 16. –Released Exam and essay – Friday, December 18 –Notebooks will be checked at that time.
CCOT: Europe The Middle Ages
Political Aspects ( ) Early Middle Ages (Post Classical Period) Period of Invasions Highly Decentralized Germanic kingdoms displaced authority and institutions of Rome: –Visigoths in Spain –Ostrogoths in Italy –Burgundians in Germany and France
Political Aspects ( ) Early Middle Ages (Post Classical Period) Under Clovis, the Franks became the main military and political power in Europe. Carolingian Empire established centralized rule for a time. Pope Leon III proclaimed Charlemagne the emperor of the empire.
Political Aspects ( ) High Middle Ages in Europe Regional States were established in Europe –Otto of Saxony established kingdom in North Germany. –France (monarchy) –English was established as a monarchy by the Normans –City-states competed for power in Italy –Christian kingdoms in Castile, Aragon, and Portugal controlled Iberian peninsula. –Granada remained in Muslim Hands.
Social Aspects ( ) Early Middle Ages in Europe Feudalism –European nobles built decentralized society after fall of Carolingian empire. –A way to protect lands and maintain public order during a period of weak central authority. –Local nobles usually owed allegiance to a higher authority, usually a king. –Local lords provided grants that allowed their retainers to support themselves and their families. –Free peasants sought protection from a lord and pledged obedience in exchange for security and land.
Social Aspects ( ) Early Middle Ages in Europe No dramatic growth in population. Charlemagne established good relations with Muslims in Abbasid Dynasty. Muslim invasions from the south Magyars invasions from central Asia Viking invasions from the north.
Social Aspects ( ) High Middle Ages in Europe Rapid population increase due to improvement in diet from High degrees of urbanization 14 th century epidemic plague Women in towns and cities had more opportunities Because of Crusades, European scholars and missionaries came into contact with Muslim philosophers and merchants. Class structure was organized by: –Those who pray –Those who fight –Those who worked.
Religious Aspects ( ) Early Middle Ages in Europe Original Germanic people were polytheists Under Clovis, the Franks converted to Christianity. Popes became spiritual authority. Differences between Christian Roman church and Christian church in Constantinople became great. Monasticism
Religious Aspects ( ) High Middle Ages in Europe The two churches split into Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches in the 11 th century. Scholastic Theology: Synthesis of Christian values and Greek philosophy St. Thomas Aquinas (Paris) believed you could prove rationally that God existed. Practice of sacraments Devotion to saints St. Dominic and St. Francis Championed spirituality over materialism Crusades began in an effort to recapture Palestine, the land of Christian origins, and the holy city of Jerusalem.
Intellectual Aspects ( ) Early Middle Ages in Europe Monks copied works of classical literature. Latin literature survived. Monks established schools.
Intellectual Aspects ( ) High Middle Ages in Europe As a result of Crusades, Europeans became more acquainted with the works of Aristotle, Islamic science, Arabic numerals and paper production. Wealth increased. More money available for formal education Cathedral schools established formal curriculum based on writings in Latin.
Technological and Economic Aspects ( ) Early Middle Ages in Europe Monasteries organized much of labor that brought expansion of agriculture. The manor (large estates) was a form of agricultural organization. Grain and grain products were the principal diet of Europeans.
Technological and Economic Aspects ( ) High Middle Ages in Europe The amount of farmable land increased. Diet expanded to include meat, dairy, fish, legumes, vegetables, etc. New food products, such as spices, granulated sugar, coffee, and dates were introduced to Europeans. Cotton textiles, carpets, and tapestries became important industries as a result of Crusades. Bankers increased credit.