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Chapter 16 The Two Worlds of Christendom 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 The Two Worlds of Christendom 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 The Two Worlds of Christendom 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2 Medieval Christendom Two halves  Byzantine empire  Germanic states Inherited Christianity from Roman empire After eighth century, tensions between two halves 2 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

3 Successor States to the Roman Empire, ca. 600 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3

4 The Early Byzantine Empire Capital: Byzantium On the Bosporus  Golden Horn Commercial, strategic value of location Constantine names capital after himself (Constantinople), moves capital there after 330 C.E. 1453, falls to Turks, renamed Istanbul 4 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5 Caesaropapism Power centralized in figure of emperor Christian leader cannot claim divinity, rather divine authority Political rule Involved in religious rule as well Authority absolute 5 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

6 The Byzantine Court Etiquette reinforces authority of emperor  Royal purple  Prostration  Mechanical devices designed to inspire awe 6 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

7 Justinian (527-565 C.E.) The “sleepless emperor” Wife Theodora as advisor  Background: circus performer Ambitious construction programs  The church of Hagia Sophia Justinian’s code: codification of Roman law 7 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

8 Byzantine Conquests Effort to reconquer much of western Roman empire from Germanic people Unable to consolidate control of territories Abandon Rome  Ravenna 8 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

9 Muslim Conquests Seventh century, Arab Muslim expansion Besieged Byzantium 674-678, 717-718 Defense made possible through use of “Greek fire” ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9

10 Theme System Themes (provinces) under control of generals Military administration Control from central imperial government Soldiers from peasant class, rewarded with land grants 10 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

11 The Germanic Successor States Last Roman emperor deposed by Germanic Odoacer, 476 C.E. Administrative apparatus still in place, but cities lose population Germanic successor states:  Visigoths  Ostrogoths  Lombards  Franks ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11

12 The Franks Heavy influence on European development, fifth to ninth centuries Conversion to Christianity gains popular support Firm alliance with western Christian church 12 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

13 The Carolingians Charles “the Hammer” Martel begins Carolingian dynasty Defeats Spanish Muslims at Battle of Tours (732)  Halts Islamic advance into western Europe 13 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

14 Charlemagne (r. 768-814) Grandson of Charles Martel Centralized imperial rule Functional illiterate, but sponsored extensive scholarship Major military achievements 14 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

15 Charlemagne’s Administration Capital at Aachen, Germany Yet constant travel throughout empire Imperial officials: missi dominici (“envoys of the lord ruler”)  Continued yearly circuit travel 15 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

16 Charlemagne as Emperor Hesitated to challenge Byzantines by taking title “emperor”  Yet ruled in fact Pope Leo III crowns him as emperor in 800  Planned in advance?  Challenge to Byzantium 16 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

17 The Carolingian Empire, 814 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17

18 Louis the Pious (r. 814-840) Son of Charlemagne Lost control of courts, local authorities Civil war erupts among three sons Empire divided in 843 18 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

19 Invasions South: Muslims East: Magyars North: Vikings  Norse expansion driven by population pressure, quest for wealth  Superior seafaring technology 19 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

20 The Vikings From village of Vik, Norway (hence “Viking”) Boats with shallow drafts, capable of river travel as well as on open seas Attacked villages, cities, monasteries from ninth century  Constantinople sacked three times Carolingians had no navy, dependent on local defenses 20 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

21 The Dissolution of the Carolingian Empire (843 C.E.) and the Invasions of Early Medieval Europe in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21

22 Economy in Medieval Christendom Byzantium – economic powerhouse Agricultural surplus Long-distance trade Western Christendom  Repeated invasions contribute to agricultural decline  Tenth century, increased political stability leads to economic recovery 22 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

23 Byzantine Peasantry Free peasantry kept Byzantium strong  Supported by the theme system Decline after eleventh century  Wealthy accumulated large estates 23 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

24 Manufacturing and Trade in Byzantium Trade routes bring key technologies, e.g. silk industry Advantage of location causes crafts and industry to expand after sixth century Bezant becomes standard currency Tax revenues from silk route 24 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

25 Manufacturing and Trade in Western Europe Invasions and political turmoil disrupt commercial activities Agricultural innovations  Heavy plow; water mills; special horse collar Small scale exchange; maritime trade in Mediterranean 25 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

26 Norse Merchant Mariners Commerce or plunder as convenient Link with the Islamic world for trade 26 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

27 Byzantium: Urban Society Aristocrats: palaces Artisans: apartments Working poor: communal living spaces Hippodrome  Chariot races, “greens vs. blues”  Politically inspired rioting 27 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

28 Western Europe: Rural Society Concept of feudalism  Lords and vassals  Increasingly inadequate model for describing complex society Ad hoc arrangements in absence of strong central authorities 28 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

29 Organizing in a Decentralized Society Local nobles take over administration from weak central government Nominal allegiances, especially to Carolingian kings But increasing independence 29 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

30 Lords and Retainers Formation of small private armies Incentives: land grants, income from mills, cash payments Formation of hereditary class of military retainers Development of other functions  Justice, social welfare 30 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

31 Peasants’ Rights and Obligations Obligation to provide labor, payments in kind to lord Unable to move from land Fees charged for marrying serfs of another lord 31 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

32 Population Growth in Christendom During fifth and sixth century, population fluctuations By eighth century, demographic recovery  Political stability  Productive agriculture 32 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

33 Population Growth of Europe, 200-1000 C.E. 33 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

34 Evolution of Christian Societies Christianity main source of religious, moral, and cultural authority Two halves disagree on doctrine, ritual, and church authority By mid-eleventh century, two rival communities  Eastern Orthodox  Roman Catholic 34 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

35 Pope Gregory I (590-604 C.E.) “Gregory the Great” Asserted papal primacy Prominent theologian  Sacrament of penance 35 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

36 The Byzantine Church Church and state closely aligned Byzantine emperors appoint patriarchs  Treated as a department of state Caesaropapism creates dissent in church 36 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

37 Iconoclasm Emperor Leo III (r. 717-741 C.E.) Destruction of icons after 726 C.E. Popular protest, rioting Policy abandoned 843 C.E. 37 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

38 Asceticism Hermit-like existence Celibacy Fasting Prayer 38 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

39 St. Basil (329-379 C.E.) and St. Benedict (480-547 C.E.) Both established consistent rule for monasteries  Poverty  Chastity  Obedience St. Scholastica (482-543 C.E.)  Sister of St. Benedict  Adapts Benedictine Rule for convents 39 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

40 Monasticism and Society Social welfare projects  Inns, orphanages, hospitals Agents in spread of Christianity  Missionaries – Christian cultural zone in western part of Eurasian continent  England  Northern Germany; Scandinavia 40 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

41 Influence on Slavic Cultures Saints Cyril and Methodius  Missions in Bulgaria and Moravia  Create Cyrillic alphabet Slavic lands develop orientation to Byzantium Prince Vladimir of Kiev converts 41 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

42 Tensions between Eastern and Western Christianity Ritual disputes  Beards on clergy  Leavened bread for Mass Theological disputes  Iconoclasm  Nature of the Trinity ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 42

43 Schism Arguments over hierarchy, jurisdiction Autonomy of patriarchs, or primacy of Rome? 1054, patriarch of Constantinople and pope of Rome excommunicate each other  East: Orthodox church  West: Roman Catholic 43 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


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